●Taanaji Malusare and the Battle of Singhagad(1670)
•Tanaaji Malusare was a Maratha military leader and a close aide of Chhatrapati Shivaji
•In 1670, Tanaji was busy making preparations for his son, Rayaba’s wedding when he was summoned by Shivaji for a meeting.
•Tanaji put the wedding plans on hold and immediately left for the meeting. (On hearing Shivaji’s plan to recapture Kondhana fort near Pune from the Mughals), Tanaji took charge of the campaign and started his preparations. •This statement is famous as adhi lagin kondhanyach mag majhya raibacha meaning first getting fort and then marriage of my child.
•A fierce combat took place between the forces of Tanaji and Udaybhan. Tanaji was gravely wounded and died in the hands of Udaybhan Rathod[a rajput officer appointed by Mughal general Jai Singh I]
•Upon hearing the demise of Tanaji, Shivaji was struck with grief and expressed his sorrow by famously saying,
“Gad ala, pan sinha gela” (“Fort is captured but lion is lost.”)
●Right to property is a human right: Supreme Court
•The Supreme Court has recently held that “The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’”
◽What’s the issue?
•The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over four acres of land belonging to a person at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
•Even 52 years later, the state has failed to pay the compensation 🙃!
•‘Right to private property was previously a fundamental right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
•Property ceased to be a fundamental right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978.[ Since then it is legal right under article 300A]
●Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019
•This will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society
•new definition: a transgender person is somebody “whose gender does not match the gender assigned to that person at birth and includes trans-men or trans-women, persons with intersex variations.., such as kinnar, hijras, aravani, and jogta”
•It(act) states that a person will be recognised as transgender on the basis of a certificate of identity issued through the district screening committee
•It also does not mention any punishments for rape or sexual assault of transgender persons as according to Sections 375 and 376 of the Indian Penal Code, rape is only when a man forcefully enters a woman.🤐!
●National Youth Day(12 January) :celebrated on Swami Vivekananda Jayanti
•National Youth Day is celebrated on this day. Celebrated since 1984.
•The main objective is to promote rational thinking among the youth, believed to be the future of the country.
•He(Vivekananda ji) was an ardent disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa and a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India.
•He pushed for national integration in colonial India, and his famous speech remains as the one that he gave in Chicago in 1893.
•Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had called Vivekananda the “maker of modern India.”
●What is H9N2: (bird flu virus)
•It is a subtype of the influenza A virus, which causes human influenza as well as bird flu.
•The H9N2 subtype was isolated for the first time in Wisconsin, US in 1966 from turkey flocks.
•H9N2 viruses are found worldwide in wild birds and are endemic in poultry in many areas.
•According to the World Health Organization (WHO), with avian influenza viruses circulating in poultry, there is a risk for sporadic infection and small clusters of human cases due to exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments.
•It is an ongoing crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, U.S. commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)
with the goal of landing “the first woman and the next man” on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024
•The main objective is to measure what happens when the Sun’s radiation hits our rocky moon, where there is no magnetic field to protect it
•NASA announces graduating class of 11 astronauts for upcoming space missions including the Artemis Mission.
[The team includes an Indian American- Raja Chari.
•On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to step on the Moon as part of the Apollo 11 mission.
•After July 1969, 12 American astronauts walked on the surface of the Moon until 1972
●What are CRZ rules
•In India, the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Rules govern human and industrial activity close to the coastline, in order to protect the fragile ecosystems near the sea.
•[They restrict certain kinds of activities — like large constructions, setting up of new industries, storage or disposal of hazardous material, mining, reclamation and bunding — within a certain distance from the coastline]
•In all Rules, the regulation zone has been defined as the area up to 500 m from the high-tide line
◽For the so-called CRZ-III (Rural) areas, two separate categories have been stipulated
•CRZ-IIIA : with a population density of 2,161 per sq km as per the 2011 Census, the no-development zone is 50 m from the high-tide level, as against the 200 m stipulated earlier
•CRZ-IIIB: (rural areas with population density below 2,161 per sq km) areas continue to have a no-development zone extending up to 200 m from the high-tide line
●Kolkata port renamed after Bharatiya Jana Sangh founder “Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee”Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
•After the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833, this port was used to ship lakhs of Indians as ‘indentured labourers’ to far-flung territories throughout the Empire.
•The Kolkata port is the only riverine port in the country, situated 203 km from the sea
•The Centre unveils Mission Purvodaya to develop eastern region into an integrated steel hub.
•The eastern belt has the potential to add over 75 percent of the country’s incremental steel capacity envisioned by the National Steel Policy
•Through this programme, the government aims to transform logistics and utilities infrastructure which would change the socio-economic landscape in the eastern India