●Women, Business and the Law 2020
•Women, Business and the Law (WBL) is a World Bank Group project collecting unique data on the laws and regulations that restrict women’s economic opportunities
•It is composed by eight indicators structured around women’s interactions
[ Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension]
•Only eight economies scored a perfect 100 —Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Latvia, Luxembourg, and Sweden
•The global average was 75.2 — a slight increase from 73.9 in the previous index released in 2017
•India is placed 117th among 190 countries😔!. [ scored 74.4 less than global average & below least developed countries like Rwanda and Lesotho.]
●Article 131: Special Powers of Supreme Court
•Under Article 131 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction to deal with any dispute between the Centre and a state; the Centre and a state on the one side and another state on the other side; and two or more states
•Kerala has become the first state to challenge the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) before the Supreme Court under Article 131 of the Constitution
•In 2011, in State of MP v Union of India, the Supreme Court held that validity of central laws can be challenged under Article 32 of the Constitution and not under Article 131
◽The Supreme Court has three kinds of jurisdictions: original, appellate and advisory.
2. Under its advisory jurisdiction, the President has the power to seek an opinion from the apex court under Article 143 of the Constitution.
3. Under its appellate jurisdiction, the Supreme Court hears appeals from lower courts.
●WHO Names Top 13 Global Health Challenges for the New Decade
1. Climate Crisis
2. Delivering Health in Conflict and Crisis
3. Healthcare Equality
4. Expanding Access to Medicines: (About one third of the world’s people lack access to medicines)
5. Infectious Diseases
11. Harnessing New Technologies
12. The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
13. Clean Water, Sanitation, Hygiene
•The list reflects a “deep concern that leaders are failing to invest enough resources in core health priorities and systems
●Henley Passport Index 2020
•It is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom for their citizens. [The Index lists the world’s passports “according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa”]
•Started in 2006 as Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) and was modified and renamed in January 2018
•The ranking is based on exclusive data from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), which maintains the world’s largest and most accurate database of travel information, and enhanced by the Henley & Partners Research Department
•The index includes 199 different passports and 227 different travel destinations.
•Japan is at the top. (It has been topping the Index for three straight years; according to the 2020 index), its citizens are able to access 191 destinations without having to obtain a visa in advance.
•Singapore, in second place (same as in 2019) with score of 190.
•Germany is No. 3 ( unexpected:)
◽The Indian passport is closer to the bottom, ranked 84th in the world[ with 58 destinations]
[last year rank was 86th (in 2019)]
●India’s fiscal deficit
•Former:) Economic Affairs Secretary S C Garg has stated that the true fiscal deficit for 2018-19 is 4.7%
•Indian government says, the fiscal deficit just 3.4 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018-19
•The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed as fiscal deficit.
•If the fiscal deficit ratio is too high, it implies that there is a lesser amount of money left in the market for private entrepreneurs and businesses to borrow
•So, simply put, a higher fiscal deficit means higher borrowing by the government, which, in turn, mean higher interest rates in the economy
●Harmonized System of Nomenclature(HSN) Code or HS Code Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a six-digit identification code.
▫️ first two denote-> HS Chapter,
▫️ next two give ->HS heading,
▫️ last two give -> HS subheading.
•Developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
•Called the “universal economic language” for goods
•Over 200 countries use the system as a basis for their customs tariffs, gathering international trade statistics, making trade policies, and for monitoring goods.
•India use up to 8 digit level.
•It is a people centric fuel conservation mega campaign of Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA).
•To create focused attention on fuel conservation through people centric activities and [Sensitize the masses about the conservation and efficient use of petroleum products leading to better health and environment]
●Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA)
•CARA is an apex body of Government of India for promoting and facilitating In-country Adoption and is the designated Central Authority for regulating Inter-countryAdoption.
•CARA was designated as a Statutory Body on 15 Jan 2016, under the provisions of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015