●Pulse Polio Programme
•India launched the Pulse Polio immunisation programme in 1995
[after a resolution for a global initiative of polio eradication was adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988]
•The WHO on February 24, 2012, removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission
•Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs etc.
[There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization]
●China’s one-child policy
•It was adopted out of the Malthusian fears that unchecked population growth would lead to economic and environmental catastrophe
•He argued that if left unchecked, a population will outgrow its resources, leading to a host of problems
•Birth rate in 2019 was at 10.48 per 1,000, the lowest since 1949.
(The number of babies born in 2019 fell by over 580,000 to 14.65 million.)
•Now, China is facing a huge demographic issue in the next years to come. They have a rapidly aging population where a quarter will be over 60 by 2030.
◽ Positive side of One Child Policy
•Helps to ease the over population problems.
•It is seen as practical by some families.
•Lowers the poverty rate
◽Negative side of One Child Policy
•The enforcement is unequal.
•It is a human rights violation.
•Gender imbalance due to the strong cultural preference of boys for labor and work.
•Increase in abortions and female infanticide.
•Extra babies end up being illegal and never becoming a citizen, due to fines etc.
●UAE has been declared ‘reciprocating territory’ by India
•“Reciprocating territory” means any country or territory outside India which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a reciprocating territory [under Section 44A of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.]
•The notification also declared a list of courts in the UAE to be “superior Courts” under the same section
•The decision is believed to help bring down the time required for executing decrees between the two countries.
•Indian expatriates in the UAE would no longer be able to seek safe haven in their home country if they are convicted in a civil case in the UAE
●1st Global social mobility report: Released by
‘World Economic Forum’
•It is a change in social status relative to one’s current social location(in relation to those of their parents) within a given society
•The report has ranked India a lowly 76 out of the 82 countries profiled
•As useual The Nordic nations hold the top five spots, led by Denmark in the first place (scoring 85 points),
followed by Norway, Finland and Sweden (all above 83 points)
and Iceland (82 points)
◽It uses 10 pillars, which in turn are broken down into five determinants of social mobility –
• technology access,
• work opportunities,
• working conditions
• fair wages
• social protection
• inclusive institutions. etc.
◽BRICS nations : Russian Federation is the most socially ranking 39th with a score of 64 points.
•Next is China,( ranks 45th),
• India (76th)
•South Africa (77th).
◽Most countries underperform in four areas: fair wages, social protection, working conditions and lifelong learning
[India ranks 41st in lifelong learning and 53rd in working conditions]
●Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
•The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements:
2. disarmament, and
3. peaceful use of nuclear energy.
•The treaty was signed in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. Presently, it has 190 member states
•Iran has warned to withdraw from the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) if the European Nations refer the dispute over its atomic programme to the United Nation Security Council.
•The Treaty does not affect the right of state parties to develop, produce, and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes
◆India, Israel, and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan(founded in 2011), has not joined NPT
●National Agriculture Market(e-NAM)
•It is an online trading platform for agriculture produce aiming to help farmers, traders, and buyers with online trading and getting a better price by smooth marketing.
•It was launched by the Centre in 2015 and the government had to extend it in a phased manner across the 585 mandis of the country by December 31, 2019
•The NAM will also facilitate the emergence of value chains in major agricultural commodities across the country and help to promote scientific storage and movement of agri goods
●Pulse Polio Programme