●Commission to Examine Sub Categorization of other Backward Classes(OBCs)
•In October 2017, President Ram Nath Kovind, in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 340 of the Constitution, appointed a commission to examine the issue of sub-categorisation of OBCs, chaired by retired Justice G. Rohini
•Sub categorization of the OBCs will ensure that the more backward among the OBC communities can also access the benefits of reservation for educational institutions and government jobs
●Democracy Index 2019: released by the Economist Intelligence Unit, a UK-based company
•The report ranks 165 independent states and two territories, covering almost the entire population of the world
◽The Index is based on five categories:
1. Electoral process and pluralism.(6.9/10)
2. Civil liberties.(6.76/10)
3. Governance (6.79/10)
4. Political participation.(6.67/10)
5. Political culture (5.63/10)
Overall (India)=> 6.9/10 [“flawed democracy” category, which also includes Bangladesh (5.88).]
•In 2019, India slipped 10 places to 51st position.
•Its score, down from from 7.23 in 2018 to 6.90 in 2019, is its lowest ever since the Democracy Index was begun in 2006
• Article 370 & 35A
• CAA ,NPR and Aane-wala NRC etc.
◽Norway (top-ranked with 9.87) is counted as a “full democracy”.
•The United States, with a score of 7.96 is a “flawed democracy”, in the same category as India
•In 2019, the average global score fell from 5.48 in 2018 to 5.44, the worst result since 2006.
•China (2.26) and North Korea (bottom-ranked with 1.08) are categorised as “authoritarian regimes”.
•Pakistan, with a score of 4.25, is categorised as a “hybrid democracy”
●Mutual Recognition of Certificates of Competency of Seafarers(a sailor)
•The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers (or STCW), 1978 sets qualification standards for masters, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships
•Cabinet approves Model MoU with foreign countries for unilateral/bilateral recognition of Certificates of Competency of seafarers.
•Indian Seafarers( sailor = नाविक), therefore, will be eligible to be placed on ships under the flag of that country for employment, thus leading to increased employment opportunities
●EAO (East Asian Observatory)
•It was Formed by EACOA (East Asian Core Observatories Association) for the purpose of pursuing joint projects in astronomy within the East Asian region.
•The intention of EAO is to build and operate facilities, which will enhance and leverage existing and planned regional facilities.
•The EAO is chartered as a non-profit Hawaii corporation.
•It consists of China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea as full members and Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia as ‘observers
◽India is in preliminary discussions to be a part of the East Asian Observatories(EAO) Consortium of eight countries committed to build large telescopes and pool resources.
•They are compounds consisting of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms.
•HCFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were created in the 1980s as substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for use in refrigeration and a wide variety of manufacturing processes
•HCFCs do not usually dissolve in water, but do dissolve in organic (carbon-containing) solvents
[HCFCs have serious environmental consequences.(also contribute to Global Warming through “the Greenhouse Effect”)]
◽India has successfully achieved the complete phase out of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-141 b
•Nearly, 50% of the consumption of ozone depleting chemicals in the country was attributable to HCFC-141 b in the foam sector.
•The complete phase out of HCFC 141 b from the country in foam sector is among the first at this scale in Article 5 parties (developing countries) under the Montreal Protocol.
●Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property,1883
•It was one of the first intellectual property treaties. It established a Union for the protection of industrial property [The Convention is currently still in force]
•Administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
•Khadi Village Industries Corporation is eyeing international trademark for ‘khadi’ under the Paris Convention for protection of industrial property.
●What is a Blue Corner notice
•Interpol has issued a Blue Corner notice to help locate fugitive self-styled godman Nithyananda, weeks after the Gujarat Police sought the agency’s intervention for this.
[Nithyananda fled India last year amid allegations of rape and sexual abuse.]
•There are seven types of notices — Red Notice, Yellow Notice, Blue Notice, Black Notice, Green Notice, Orange Notice, and Purple Notice Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
◽Interpol[ Formed in 1923]
•The International Criminal Police Organisation, or Interpol, is a 194-member intergovernmental organisation.
•Headquartered in Lyon, France.
•India joined the organisation in 1949
●Vyom Mitra: ISRO’s first woman astronaut.Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It will be used for an unmanned flight of ISRO’s GSLV III rocket in December 2020, which, along with a second unmanned flight in July 2021.
•Vyommitra, equipped with a head, two arms and a torso, is built to mimic crew activity inside the crew module of Gaganyaan.
●Reciting preamble is compulsory in Maharashtra:
•Maharashtra government has made it compulsory to recite the Preamble to the Constitution in all schools starting January 26.
•The objective is to instil values such as justice, freedom and equality enshrined in the Constitution