Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI)’s Report on Slavery
•Recently, the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) and Walk Free (an international anti-slavery organisation) released a report on slavery on the occasion of World Day Against Trafficking in Persons (30th July)
•It assessed the progress made by Commonwealth countries on the promises made in 2018 to end modern slavery by 2030 and achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (Target 8.7) of ending forced labour, human trafficking and child labour.
•Commonwealth countries accounts for about 40% of people living in conditions of modern slavery in the world.
•There is an estimated one in every 150 people in the Commonwealth living in conditions of modern slavery
•India has fared the worst in terms of coordination, “with no national coordinating body or National Action Plan in place”
•Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) is an independent, non-partisan, international non-governmental organisation,
[headquartered in New Delhi]
AIM-iCREST: Incubator capabilities enhancement program
•Recently, the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) has launched an incubator capabilities enhancement program ‘AIM-iCREST
•AIM-iCREST is an Incubator Capabilities Enhancement program for a Robust Ecosystem focused on creating high performing Startups
•This will be complemented by providing training to entrepreneurs, through technology driven processes and platforms.
•The focus will be on supporting start-up entrepreneurs in knowledge creation and dissemination as well as in developing robust and active networks.
【Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is a flagship initiative set up by the NITI Aayog to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the country】
•Black rain refers to two atmospheric events:
1. Nuclear fallout, particularly with regard to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
2. Rain polluted with dark particulates such as rain dust
•In 1945, the USA dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6th and 9th August respectively, which marked the end of World War II.
[2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the incident.]
•The explosion and resultant firestorms are believed to have killed around 80,000 people in Hiroshima and around 40,000 people in Nagasaki.
•Black rain is full of highly radioactive material and exposure to it can result in serious illnesses.
•A study conducted in 1945 showed that black rain had come down as far as 29 km away from ground zero
【Recently, a district court of Hiroshima (Japan) has recognised 84 survivors of the post-nuclear explosion “black rain” as the atomic bomb survivors enabling them to avail benefits like free medical care】
Inhibition of PLpro blocks virus replication :COVID-19
•PLpro is a protein which suppresses the development of type 1 interferons. Due to which, killer cells are not informed about the infection.
[Hence, PL pro plays a crucial role in the replication of the virus]
•Usually, when a virus attacks human cells, the infected body cells release messenger substances known as ‘type 1 interferons’ which attract the killer cells in human bodies.
[These killer cells kill the infected cells and save humans from getting sick.]
•When the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) enters a human cell, it hijacks the cell mechanism and fights back by letting the human cell produce PLpro.
【According to a new study on Covid-19, pharmacological inhibition of PLpro blocks virus replication and also strengthens immune response in humans】
•AJO-Neo is a non-contact and non-invasive spectrometry-based technique for measurement of neonatal bilirubin level without limitations of other available bilirubin meters.
•Bilirubin is a yellowish substance in the blood. [It forms after red blood cells break down, and it travels through liver, gallbladder, and digestive tract before being excreted.]
•It is reliable in measuring bilirubin levels in preterm, and term neonates irrespective of gestational or postnatal age, sex, risk factors, feeding behavior or skin color.
•The device delivers an instantaneous report (about 10 seconds) to a concerned doctor.
•The conventional “blood test” method takes more than 4 hours to generate the report.
Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar
•The Government of India instituted Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskaar to recognise the excellent work done by the individuals and institutions in the field of disaster management.
•The awards are announced on the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose on 23rd January every year.
•In addition to a certificate, these awards carry a cash award of Rs. 51 lakhs for an Institution and Rs. 5 lakhs for an Individual.
•The Institution has to utilize the cash prize for Disaster Management related activities only.
•Only Indian nationals and Indian institutions can apply for the award
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)
•It is a collaboration of 35 nations launched in 1985.
•It is located in France.
•It aims to build the world’s largest tokamak to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy.
•The tokamak is an experimental machine designed to harness the energy of fusion.
•The project is based on fusion which is also an energy source for the Sun and stars.
•ITER will be the first fusion device to maintain fusion for long periods of time and also to test the integrated technologies