Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie(DSDBO) Road
•This road joins Leh to the Karakoram Pass, which divides Ladakh from China’s Xinjiang province
•The 255-km road from Darbuk traverses at an altitude of 14,000 feet and reaches Shyok, the last Indian village in the region
•Between Shyok and Karakoram Pass lies Daulat Beg Oldie (DBO), a plateau at an altitude of over 16,000 feet and the location of an Advanced Landing Ground (ALG) used by the air force to drop supplies.
[DBO is India’s northernmost corner, which in army parlance is called Sub-Sector North.]
•India has decided to not stop road construction on its side of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) despite the border confrontations and objections by China as it does not want India to utilise the DSDBO road to its full potential.
•DBO is located only 9 km away from the LAC with China and the road will help manage the border and the areas adjoining Aksai Chin, Chip Chap River and Jiwan Nalla
•From the DSDBO road, a road branches off towards Galwan Valley which had prompted the stand-off in Galwan Valley
6th Mass Extinction
•Mass extinction refers to a substantial increase in the degree of extinction or when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short period of time.
•So far, the Earth has experienced five mass extinctions
1.First Mass Extinction:(444 million years ago): 86% of species lost (Severe ice age that lowered sea levels, possibly triggered by the uplift of the Appalachians)
2. Second Mass Extinction 🙁 383-359 million years ago) :75% of species lost (With the emergence of land plants, their deep roots stirred up the earth, releasing nutrients into the ocean. )
3.Third Mass Extinction: (252 million years ago): 96% of species lost due cataclysmic eruption near Siberia blasted CO2 into the atmosphere.
4. Fourth Mass Extinction: (201 million years ago) : 80% of species lost (No clear causes have been found)
5. Fifth Mass Extinction: (66 million years ago) : 76% of all species lost due to Volcanic activity and climate change along with asteroid species
•The five mass extinctions that took place in the last 450 million years have led to the destruction of 70-95% of the species of plants, animals and microorganisms that existed earlier
•Recently, the researchers have observed that the ongoing sixth mass extinction is one of the most serious environmental threats to the existence of civilisation.
•Recently, researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras have identified a specific microRNA (miRNA) called ‘miR-155’ that is over-expressed in tongue cancer
•MicroRNAs are short non‐coding Ribonucleic Acids (RNAs) containing 20–24 nucleotides that participate in virtually all biological pathways in animals.
[They play important roles in many cancers, in carcinogenesis, malignant transformation and metastasis.]
•The miRNAs associated with cancer are called Oncomirs
•The finding could help develop molecular strategies to manipulate miR-155 expression to develop therapeutics for tongue cancer
36th Anniversary of Operation Blue Star
•Operation Blue Star(1984): It was a code name given to an Indian Military Operation to remove the separatists who were hidden inside the Golden Temple at Amritsar on 5th June 1984.
•The operation was ordered by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, primarily to take control of the Harmandir Sahib Complex in Amritsar (popularly known as the Golden Temple).
•Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale wanted the Indian government to pass the Anandpur Resolution, and thereby agree to the formation of a separate state of Khalistan for Sikhs.
•Since 1982, this radical leader of Sikhism had managed to gain enough support for his cause and by mid-1983 had set up a base inside the Golden Temple complex, with ammunition and his followers.
•Hence, Operation Blue Star was launched between 1st June and 6th June 1984, with the aim of getting rid of Bhindranwale and his demands.
•The operation resulted in the death of Bhindranwale.
Few months post-Operation Blue Star, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, followed by severe anti-Sikh riots in Delhi.
COVID BEEP” App:
•COVID BEEP stands for Continuous Oxygenation and Vital Information Detection Biomed ECIL ESIC Pod.
•It is country’s first indigenous wireless physiological parameters monitoring system for the COVID 19 affected patients.
•Developed by Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) medical college, Hyderabad in collaboration with Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Hyderabad and the Department of Atomic Energy.
India’s first online waste exchange platform : by Andhra Pradesh
•It will help the authorities monitor the movement of hazardous waste real-time using the tools incorporated in the platform.
•The platform will be handled by the AP Environment Management Corporation (APEMC).
•The APEMC will streamline collection of the waste from industries, sort and streamline the waste as hazardous or non-hazardous or e-waste according to category, and scientifically dispose it off at various waste disposal centres