•Parkinson’s Disease is a chronic, degenerative neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system.
•It damages nerve cells in the brain dropping the levels of dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical that sends behavioural signals from the brain to the body.
[It affects the age group from 6 to 60 years. Worldwide, about 10 million people have been affected by this disease]
Aggregation of ASyn:
•An aggregation of a protein called Alpha-synuclein (ASyn) plays a crucial role in the development of Parkinson’s disease
【Recently, scientists from IIT (Indian School of Mines) Dhanbad and CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (Kolkata) have developed the Z-scan method to monitor the origin as well as the progression of Parkinson’s disease in human beings】
•The discovered Z-scan method is expected to help in monitoring both the early as well as late stages of the aggregation of ASyn and death of neuronal cells.
Covid KAVACH ELISA
•Recently, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has approved the first batch of antibody testing kits called “Covid KAVACH ELISA” manufactured by Zydus-Cadila to be used in sero-survey
•Covid KAVACH ELISA has been developed at the National Institute of Virology, Pune, by isolating the virus from patients in India.
•Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a test that detects and measures antibodies in blood.
•The test can be used to determine antibodies related to certain infectious conditions.
•It can be used to diagnose HIV, which causes AIDS, Zika virus etc.
ELISA antibody tests are different from the rapid antibody tests previously used by Indian authorities.
1. ELISA kits are more reliable and cheaper than rapid antibody testing kits.
2. The ELISA kit has a sensitivity of 98.7% and a specificity of 100%.
【Sensitivity signifies accurate positive test results, whereas specificity signifies accurate negative test results.】
SAMARTH Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
•It is an open source, open standard enabled robust, secure, scalable, and evolutionary process automation engine for Universities and Higher Educational Institutions.
•Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) refers to a type of software used to manage day-to-day business activities such as accounting, procurement, project management, risk management and compliance, and supply chain operations.
•Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) has developed an e-governance platform ‘SAMARTH Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)’ under the National Mission of Education in Information and Communication Technology Scheme (NMEICT)
•This platform would automate the processes of the enhancement of productivity through better information management in the institute by seamless access to information and proper utilization of information.
COBAS 6800 :Coronavirus testing device
•COBAS 6800 is a fully automated, high end machine for performing Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing for Covid-19.
•It will provide quality, high-volume testing as it can test around 1200 samples in 24 hours
•It is a sophisticated machine enabled with robotics that minimizes the chance of contamination as well as the risk of infection to the health care workers.
•The device can also detect other pathogens like Viral Hepatitis B & C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Papilloma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, Chlamydia (a bacterial infection), Neisseria (bacteria) etc.
•This is the first such testing machine that has been procured by the Government(India) for testing of Covid-19 cases and is installed at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)
•It is located on the Indus River in northern Pakistan between Kohistan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Diamer district in Gilgit Baltistan.
•With the height of 272 meters, it will be the tallest Roller Compact Concrete (RCC) dam in the world.
•The dam project with a total financial outlay of about 1,406.5 billion Pakistani rupees( ~ $ 9 million) would be completed in 2028
•The project was approved in 2010, but it suffered delays because international lending agencies backtracked due to the opposition from India as a major part of the dam is located in Gilgit-Baltistan (one of the disputed territories of India) and it will cause unrest in the region.
•India has opposed the move on the grounds that Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir that was illegally occupied by Pakistan.
•India has consistently conveyed her protest and shared concerns with both China and Pakistan on all such projects in the Indian territories under Pakistan’s illegal occupation
What is Y2K Bug?
•Recently, the Prime Minister mentioned the Y2K bug while addressing the nation on Covid-19
•The letter K, which stands for kilo (a unit of 1000), is commonly used to represent the number 1,000. So, Y2K stands for Year 2000. [It is also called the ‘Year 2000 bug or Millennium Bug’.]
•The Y2K bug was a computer flaw or bug that people during the late 1900s thought would prove to be a massive problem when dealing with dates beyond December 31, 1999
•While writing computer programs during the 1960s to 1980s, computer engineers used only the last two digits of a year.
[For example, “19” was left out from “1999” and only “99” was used]
•This led to the idea that all activities that were programmed would be damaged as a computer would interpret January 1, 1900 instead of January 1, 2000.