District mineral foundations(DMFs)
•They are non-profit trust to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.
Jurisdiction: Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
Chhattisgarh became the first state in July 2019, to amend DMF rules.
•The new rule mandates the inclusion of 10 Gram Sabha members directly from mining-affected areas in the DMF Governing Council (GC).
•In Scheduled Areas, at least 50 per cent of the Gram Sabha members must be from Scheduled Tribes (ST).
▪️Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY):
The programme is meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).
The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act(FRBM), 2003
•It is an Act of the Parliament of India to institutionalize financial discipline, reduce India’s fiscal deficit, improve macroeconomic management and the overall management of the public funds by moving towards a balanced budget and strengthen fiscal prudence
•The Act’s long-term objective is for India to achieve fiscal stability and to give the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) flexibility to deal with inflation in India.
[It limited the fiscal deficit to 3% of the GDP.]
•To help fund the emergency relief package, Kerala proposes to borrow as much as ₹12,500 crore from the market in April itself and therefore the Chief Minister has urged the Centre to provide Kerala with flexibility under the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act
▪️Under Section 4(2) of the Act, the Centre can exceed the annual fiscal deficit target citing grounds that include national security, war, national calamity, collapse of agriculture etc.
Li Keqiang index or Keqiang index
•It is an economic measurement index created by The Economist to measure China’s economy.
•It is based on three indicators namely
a) railway cargo volume
b) electricity consumption
c) loans disbursed by banks.
▪️Li Keqiang, the current Premier of the People’s Republic of China, has said that the Keqiang index is a better economic indicator for China than official numbers of GDP
Fight Corona IDEAthon initiative.
• Launched by All India Council for Technical Education(AICTE) and Ministry of HRD Innovation Cell
•It aims to generate and transform innovative ideas into viable solutions that can support the community in managing the uncertainties arising out of the Coronavirus pandemic.
▪️Innovation Cell : It is a statutory body under the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development
Earth Hour 2020
•It is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). •The event is held annually encouraging individuals, communities, and businesses to turn off non-essential electric lights, for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. on a specific day towards the end of March, as a symbol of commitment to the planet
[generally, Earth Hour is observed on the last Saturday of March every year]
•It aims to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature
▪️Theme 2020: Climate Change and sustainable development
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
•It was opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
•It is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.
▪️Biological weapons are microorganisms like virus, bacteria, fungi or other toxins that are produced and released deliberately to cause disease and death in humans, animals or plants
•currently, It has 183 states. [India signed the convention in 1973.]
Three Seas Initiative(3SI)
•It is a forum that brings together Twelve European Union member states between the Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.
•It aims to promote economic growth, security and a stronger and more cohesive Europe.
•The Three Seas Initiative summit has been rescheduled due to the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19)
•It is being implemented by Border Roads Organization (BRO) in Arunachal Pradesh.
•It aims to link remote regions of the borders with well developed strategic roads
•Project Arunank has reconstructed the Daporijo Bridge across Subansiri river in Arunachal Pradesh
•It is the largest tributary of Brahmaputra River.
•It originates in the Tibet Plateau and enters India through Miri hills in Arunachal Pradesh.
Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research(INSPIRE) Programme
•It was launched in 2018 by Ministry of Science & Technology.
•It aims to attract talented youth to the study of science at an early stage and build the required critical human resource pool for strengthening and expanding the Science & Technology system and R&D base
•Recently, a recipient of the INSPIRE programme award has developed a quantum chemistry based software useful for radiation therapy
▪️Quantum chemistry: It is a branch of chemistry focused on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
[ It is also called molecular quantum mechanics]