●Global Tiger Day : 29th July
•Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has released a detailed ‘Status of Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India (2018) Report’ on the eve of the Global Tiger Day
•The report compares information obtained from the earlier three tiger surveys (2006, 2010, and 2014) with data obtained from the 2018-19 survey to estimate tiger population trends at country level
•With 2,967 tigers, India, four years in advance, has achieved the target set in the 2010 St Petersburg Declaration of doubling tiger population by 2022.
[ India had around 1,400 tigers in 2006.]
•India has 70% of the world’s tiger population.
(It is tirelessly working with all 13 tiger range countries towards nurturing the tiger.)
•Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers at 526, closely followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442)
•There are currently 13 tiger range countries – India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.
【fourth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation 2018 recently entered the Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest camera trap wildlife survey.
(Camera trapswere placed in 26,838 locations across 141 different sites and surveyed an effective area of 121,337 square kilometres.)】
•The Heads of the Governments of Tiger Range countries at St. Petersburg, Russia, had resolved to double tiger numbers across their global range by 2022 by signing the St. Petersburg declaration on tiger conservation.
•During the same meeting it was also decided to celebrate 29th July as Global Tiger Day across the world, which is since being celebrated to spread and generate awareness on tiger conservation.
•Tigers were observed to be increasing at a rate of 6% per annum in India from 2006 to 2018.
•Most of the populations remain confined to small Protected Areas, some of which have habitat corridors that permit tiger movement between them.
•However, most of the corridor habitats in India are degrading due to unsustainable human use and developmental projects.
Some reserves nearing full capacity is another issue.
•Tigers and other wildlife are a kind of soft power that India has to show on the international front.
•Despite several constraints such as less land mass, India has 8% of biodiversity because of its culture of saving and preserving nature, trees and its wildlife.
•The Government is working on a programme to provide water and fodder to animals at the forest itself to deal with the challenge of human-animal conflict that is causing the death of animals.
•For this, Lidar-based survey technology will be used for the first time.
•Lidar is a method of measuring distance by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflection with a sensor.