●High Level of Ammonia in Yamuna River
•Recently, high levels (around 3 ppm) of ammonia in the Yamuna river has been detected in Delhi which led to the disruption of water supply in Delhi.
•As per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the acceptable maximum limit of ammonia in drinking water is 0.5 parts per million (ppm)
•Ammonia(NH3) is a colourless gas and is used as an industrial chemical in the production of fertilisers, plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes and other products.
•Ammonia reduces the amount of oxygen in water as it is transformed to oxidised forms of nitrogen. Hence, it also increases Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
•If the concentration of ammonia in water is above 1 ppm (it would toxic to fishes.)
•Stringent implementation of guidelines against dumping harmful waste into the river.
•Making sure untreated sewage does not enter the water.
•Maintain a sustainable minimum flow, called the ecological flow.
•Ecological flow is the minimum amount of water that should flow throughout the river at all times to sustain underwater and estuarine ecosystems and human livelihoods, and for self regulation.
•The river Yamuna, a major tributary of river Ganges, originates from the Yamunotri glacier near Bandarpoonch peaks in the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.
•It meets the Ganges at the Sangam in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh after flowing through Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi.
•Length: 1376 km
•Important Dam: Lakhwar-Vyasi Dam (Uttarakhand), Tajewala Barrage Dam (Haryana) etc.
•Important Tributaries: Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Ken.