●National Education Policy(NEP-2020)
•Union Cabinet gave its nod to the new policy recently
•The NEP 2020 aims at making “India a global knowledge superpower”.
•The Cabinet has also approved the renaming of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education
•A panel headed by former ISRO chief K. Kasturirangan submitted a draft in December 2018, which was made public and opened for feedback after the Lok Sabha election in May 2019.
[The two earlier education policies were brought in 1968 and 1986.]
•Public spending on education by states, Centre to be raised to 6% of the GDP.
•Board exams to be easier, redesigned. Exams will test core competencies rather than memorising facts, with all students allowed to take the exam twice.[ Semester-wise]
•Four year undergraduate degrees with multiple entry and exit options will be introduced.
•The Phil degree will be abolished.
•It also aims to double the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education, including vocational education, from 26.3% in 2018 to 50% by 2035, (with an additional 3.5 crore new seats.)
•Universalise the pre-primary education (age range of 3-6 years) by 2025
•Child’s mother tongue will be used as the medium of instruction till class 5.
•National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy will ensure basic skills at the class 3 level by 2025.
•The current 10+2 system to be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.
•It will bring the uncovered age group of 3-6 years under school curriculum, which has been recognized globally as the crucial stage for development of mental faculties of a child.
•It will also have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre schooling
•Holistic Undergraduate education with a flexible curriculum can be of 3 or 4 years with multiple exit options and appropriate certification within this period.
•Affiliation of colleges is to be phased out in 15 years and a stage-wise mechanism to be established for granting graded autonomy to colleges.
•Over a period of time, every college is expected to develop into either an autonomous degree-granting College, or a constituent college of a university.
•An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, administration.
•National Assessment Centre- ‘PARAKH’ has been created to assess the students.
•It also paves the way for foreign universities to set up campuses in India.
•It emphasizes setting up of Gender Inclusion Fund, Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups.
•National Institute for Pali, Persian and Prakrit, Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation to be set up.
•It also aims to increase the public investment in the Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest.
•Currently, India spends around 4.6 % of its total GDP on education.
•New Education Policy aims to facilitate an inclusive, participatory and holistic approach, which takes into consideration field experiences, empirical research, stakeholder feedback, as well as lessons learned from best practices.
•It is a progressive shift towards a more scientific approach to education. The prescribed structure will help to cater the ability of the child – stages of cognitive development as well as social and physical awareness