October 2019 Compilation || Quick Revision

National Nutrition Survey
•With the help of UNICEF, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare recently conducted the first-ever comprehensive National Nutrition Survey
•The survey recorded malnutrition that included micronutrient deficiencies and details of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol and kidney function in children and adolescents
•Around 10% of children in the age group of 5 to 9 years and adolescents in the age group 10 to 19 years are pre – diabetic
•The survey for the first time proved the coexistence of obesity and under nutrition.
•One in five children in the age group 5 to 9 years were stunted.
•Tamil Nadu and Goa had the highest number of adolescents who were obese or overweight
School Education Quality Index (SEQI): by NITI Aayog
•Aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions.
•The index is developed through a collaborative process, including key stakeholders such as Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), the World Bank and sector experts.
•It consists of 30 critical indicators that assess the delivery of quality education.
•Kerala has emerged on top among 20 large states in terms of quality of school education, followed by Rajasthan and Karnataka, [while the most-populous Uttar Pradesh was ranked at the bottom position during 2016-17]
•The highest incremental performance has been recorded in Kerala. As against 77.6% score in 2015-2016, the state has recorded 82.2% in 2016-2017
•The overall performance has declined in Karnataka and Uttarakhand.
All seven union territories have shown an improvement in their overall performance scores
Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
•State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorized to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 29 Authorized Branches
Penicillin to fight rheumatic fever
•government is planning on the revival of Penicillin in a bid to fight against drug resistance and to tackle rheumatic heart disease.
•Penicillin is one of the oldest antibiotics known to man and is still effective in many cases as not many organisms have developed resistance to it yet.
•Discovered in 1928.
Rheumatic fever
•It is endemic in India.
•It remains to be one of the major causes of the cardiovascular disease which accounts for nearly 25 to 45 per cent of acquired heart disease.
Sovereign Gold Bond scheme
•The sovereign gold bond was introduced by the Government in 2015.
•Government introduced these bonds to help reduce India’s over dependence on gold imports.
•The move was also aimed at changing the habits of Indians from saving in physical form of gold to a paper form with Sovereign backing
 Minimum and Maximum limit: The minimum permissible investment limit will be 1 gram of gold, while the maximum limit will be 4 kg for individual
Enterprise Development Centres (EDCs)
•These EDCs aimed at developing a cadre of indigenous entrepreneurs in the MSMEs, the EDCs will be similar to incubators for start-ups.
•They shall be run by special purpose vehicles in partnership with the private sector, business management organisations, local industry associations
National Crisis Management Committee(NCMC)
•The NCMC gives direction to the Crisis Management Group as deemed necessary
•For effective implementation of relief measures in the wake of natural calamities, the Government of India has set up a National Crisis Management Committee.
•Cabinet Secretary is it’s Chairman
BrahMos Missile
•It flies almost three times the speed of sound at Mach 2.8 and has a range of 290 km.
•The missile has been jointly developed with Russia and is named after the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva in Russia
Ancient buried river View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The Union Water Ministry has excavated an old, dried-up river in Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad) that linked the Ganga and Yamuna rivers
•The newly discovered river was a “buried paleochannel that joins the Yamuna river at Durgapur village, about 26 km south of the current Ganga-Yamuna confluence at Prayagraj
•The “ancient buried river” is around 4 km wide, 45 km long and consisted of a 15-metre-thick layer buried under soil
SC/ST judgment
•Supreme Court has recalled its directions in a March 20, 2018 verdict that had effectively diluted provisions of arrest under the Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
[Supreme court gave the judgement on the pretext that Innocents cannot be terrorised by the provisions of the SC/ST Act and their fundamental rights need to be protected.]
•This was following a plea by the Centre seeking a review of that judgment
•Observations made by the court:
The struggle for equality and civil rights of SC/ST communities was still not over. They are still discriminated.
Ayushman Bharat Scheme;-
↪Is a National Health Protection Scheme
↪which will cover over 10 crore poor vulnerable families (around 50 crore beneficiaries)
↪providing coverage of up to ₹5 lakh (per family per year) for secondary and tertiary care hospitalisation.
↪It will subsume “Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)” & “Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS)”
•Common Service Center (CSC)&NHA have signed a MoU to implement Ayushman Bharat scheme through 3 lakh CSCs across the country
• different categories are entitled under the scheme like –
↪families having no adult member(age 16-59),female headed households with no adult male,SC/ST household etc.&
↪defined 11 occupational categories in urban areas
Drone Innovators Network Summit 2019
•Organised by the World Economic Forum under the aegis of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
•It wad Started by the World Economic Forum to hasten and contribute to healthy drone policies in need of legislation.
•Established to help overcome common challenges regulators are facing in enabling drones and unmanned aviation
•As per the regulations, manufacturers of drone are required to comply with the requirements of No Permission, No Take-off (NPNT) on the Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS)
Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs)
•APA is an agreement between a taxpayer and the tax authority determining the Transfer Pricing methodology for pricing the tax payer’s international transactions for future years.
•Indian APA programme has been appreciated nationally and internationally for being able to address complex transfer pricing issues in a fair and transparent manner
RUCO (Repurpose Used Cooking Oil) initiative :{launched by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)}
•It will enable collection and conversion of used cooking oil to bio-diesel.
•Total Polar Compounds (TPC):
~In many countries, TPC is used to measure the quality of oil. The level of TPC increases every time oil is re-heated
Military Nursing Service:
• celebrates 94th Raising Day.
•MNS is the only all women corps in the Armed Forces.
•It came into being on March 28, 1888 with the arrival of first batch of 10 qualified British Nurses in Bombay (now Mumbai), to organise nursing in Military hospitals in India.
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL):
•Autonomous body under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), Department of Secondary and Higher Education.
•Autonomous body under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), Department of Secondary and Higher Education.
•Set up to promote, develop and propagate Urdu language, Council started its operation in Delhi on April 1, 1996.
D28 iceberg: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com


• A more than 1,500 sq.km. D28 iceberg recently broke off Antarctica.【 Our world still thinks, it’s happening on an another planet (: 】
•It is about 210 metres thick and contains 315 billion tonnes of ice.
•The east of Antarctica — where D28 broke off — is different from the west of the continent and Greenland, which are rapidly warming due to climate change
What legal rights do deities enjoy?
•Supreme Court said: “The very words Juristic Person connote recognition of an entity to be in law a person which otherwise it is not.
(In other words, it is not an individual natural person but an artificially created person which is to be recognised to be in law as such.”)
•Gods, corporations, rivers, and animals, have all been treated as juristic persons by courts.
▫️Rights deities have:
•Own property.
•Pay taxes
•Sue and being sued.
•Do not have fundamental rights or other constitutional rights (Sabarimala case).
▫️In May, the Punjab and Haryana High Court held that the “entire animal kingdom” has a “distinct legal persona with corresponding rights, duties, and liabilities of a living person”.
▫️On March 20, 2017, the Uttarakhand High Court declared that the Ganga and Yamuna would be legally treated as “living people,” and enjoy “all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person”.
National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC): Established in 2006.
•Its Mandate is to assist in policy and strategy development in the provision and mobilization of technical assistance to the states and in capacity building for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) at the centre and in the states
•It has a 23 member Governing Body, chaired by the Secretary, MoHFW, Government of India with the Mission Director, NRHM as the Vice Chairperson of the GB and the Chairperson of its Executive Committee
District mineral foundations
•Rajasthan to create pneumoconiosis fund with DMF money
Pneumoconiosis, a lung disease, mostly affects workers who work in the mining and construction sectors and deal with soil, silica, coal dust and asbestos. (The disease includes asbestosis, silicosis and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis.)
•DMFs were instituted under the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Amendment Act 2015.
•They are non-profit trusts to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations.
Deep Carbon Observatory View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a global community of more than 1000 scientists on a ten-year quest to understand the quantities, movements, forms, and origins of carbon in Earth
•Deep Carbon Observatory (CDO) has released a report on Carbon, it’s emissions and availability
•The study’s results are concerning due to past extinction events linked to the mass release of atmospheric CO2.
•Less than one percent of the planet’s carbon is found above surface.
•Human emissions of the greenhouse gas are 100 times greater than all of Earth’s volcanoes
•Carbon plays a fundamental role on Earth. It forms the chemical backbone for all essential organic molecules produced by living organisms. Carbon-based fuels supply most of society’s energy
Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act 2019: Notified by Singapore
•It will enable the government to order social media websites to take down posts deemed to be false.
•The Act’s definition of a falsehood is limited to a statement of fact and does not cover opinions, criticisms, satire or parody.
•Technology companies and rights groups have expressed concerns and worried because this law will hurt innovation and the growth of the digital information ecosystem. They argue that the law imposes limitations on free speech
【BJP would like this!!】
Vayoshreshtha Samman:
•It is a Scheme of National Awards instituted by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment (D/o Social Justice & Empowerment)
•It was upgraded to the status of National Awards in 2013.
The award is for institutions involved in rendering distinguished service for the cause of elderly persons especially indigent senior citizens and to eminent citizens in recognition of their service/achievements.
International Day of Older Persons
•On 14 December 1990, the United Nations General Assembly designated 1 October the International Day of Older Persons.
•The theme of the 2019 commemoration is “The Journey to Age Equality”.
Ex Ekuverin – 19:
•Tenth edition of the Joint Military Exercise Ekuverin between the Indian Army and the Maldives National Defence Force will be held in Pune, Maharashtra.
•The two Forces have been conducting Exercise Ekuverin meaning ‘Friends’ in the Dhivehi language since 2009.
•The 14 days Joint Exercise held alternatively in India and Maldives
Nomadic Elephant 2019:
•It is Indo – Mongolian joint military training.
•Nomadic Elephant-XIV is aimed at training troops in counter insurgency &counter terrorism operations under United Nations mandate.
Vande Bharat Express train:
•Vande Bharat Express on Delhi-Katra route was flagged off recently.
•The semi-high speed Train 18, was rechristened as Vande Bharat Express, is country’s second such train.
•The first Vande Bharat Express on Delhi- Varanasi route began operations in February this year.
•The indigenously developed Vande Bharat train can run up to a maximum speed of 160 kmph, making it India’s fastest train
PRAKASH (Power Rail Koyla Availability through Supply Harmony) portal
•portal has been launched for transparency and better coordination in coal supplies to power plants.
•Aims at bringing better coordination for coal supplies among all stakeholders viz – Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal, Coal India, Railways and power utilities.
•Portal is developed by NTPC and sources data from different stakeholders
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Kerala’s Wayanad district has witnessed a series of protests against a ban on night traffic on the forest stretch of NH 766, a key highway between Karnataka and Kerala that passes through the Bandipur Tiger Reserve in Karnataka.
Although the night ban was first enforced a decade ago, the immediate trigger for the current agitation was a recent Supreme Court direction to the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change and the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) to suggest alternative routes so that NH 766 could be shut down permanently
Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV):
•EEHV is as a type of herpes virus that can cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants between the ages of 1 and 12.
•If a young elephant dies before reproducing, it affects the population of the species as a whole in the concerned geography.
The virus spreads from one elephant to another but not to other animals or human beings
•It is a rare disease that has killed five elephants in Odisha
Public Finance Management System (PFMS) portal
•It is an end-to- end solution for processing payments, tracking, monitoring, accounting, reconciliation and reporting.
•Administered by the Department of Expenditure.
•It is implemented by the Controller General of Accounts.
•It provides platform for efficient management of funds through tracking of funds and real time reporting of expenditure and receipts through treasury and bank interface.
•PFMS is also used for DBT payments under MGNREGA and other notified schemes of the Government of India
Information Fusion Centre (IFC) for the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
•IFC-IOR is being established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond, by building a common coherent maritime situation picture and acting as a maritime information hub for the region
•It also aims to promote sharing of best practices in this field so as to yield better response to myriad security and safety challenges that IOR faces.
•Indian Navy is hosting a Maritime Information Sharing Workshop 2019 edition under the aegis of (IFC-IOR) at Gurugram, Haryana
Annual study of state-level budgets: released by RBI
•Except during 2016-17, state governments have regularly met their fiscal deficit target of 3% of GDP
•However, most states ended up meeting the fiscal deficit target not by increasing their revenues but by reducing their expenditure and increasingly borrowing from the market
•States now have a greater role to play in determining India’s GDP than the Centre. (States now spend one-and-a-half times more than the Union government)
•If a state, or all the states in aggregate, find it difficult to raise revenues, a rising mountain of debt — captured in the debt-to-GDP ratio — could start a vicious cycle.
•region in space that allows the best observations. The region exists as a result of the interactions between the Sun and Earth.
•On the Earth side facing the Sun, the envelope is compressed into a region that is approximately three to four times the Earth radius.
•On the opposite side, the envelope is stretched into a long tail, which extends beyond the orbit of the Moon.
•It is this tail that is called the geotail.
Once every 29 days, (the Moon traverses the geotail for about six days)
•An instrument on Chandrayaan-2, CLASS, designed to detect signatures of elements in the Moon’s soil, had detected charged particles during the mission. This happened in September, during the orbiter’s passage through the “geotail”.
Multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition
•Spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany.
•It is the largest ever Arctic expedition in history.
•It will be the first to conduct a study of this scale at the North Pole for an entire year.
•The aim of the expedition will be to parameterise the atmospheric, geophysical, oceanographic and all other possible variables in the Arctic, and use it to more accurately forecast the changes in our weather systems.
•The international expedition will involve more than 60 institutions from 19 countries
•India’s Vishnu Nandan will be the only Indian aboard the multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition
•The Arctic is the key area of global climate change, with warming rates exceeding twice the global average and warming during winter even larger.
•It is well possible that the Arctic ocean will become ice free in summer during the 21st century
Green Crackers
•They are less harmful and less dangerous than the conventional ones. They are the crackers with reduced emission and decibel level. They are known as ‘green’ firecrackers because they have a chemical formulation that produces water molecules, which substantially reduces emission levels and absorbs dust.
•It promises a reduction in particulate matters and harmful gases, like nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide, by 30- 35 per cent.
[The green crackers will be 25-30 per cent cheaper to manufacture]
•Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed green crackers, which are new and improved formulations of the previous sound-emitting crackers and other fireworks.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
•It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. It is a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in various areas. The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris
•The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system
•Financial Action Task Force affiliate Asia Pacific Group (APG) places Pakistan on Blacklist for failing to combat terrorism, money laundering and meeting the required global standards.
[FATF Asia-Pacific Group is one of the regional affiliates of the Financial Action Task Force.]
•【As of now there are only two countries in the blacklist — Iran and North Korea — and seven on the grey list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria and Yemen.】
39th edition World Congress of Poets 2019: Is being held at Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology and Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KIIT & KISS) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
•Founded in 1969.
•This is the third time WCP is being hosted in India. Previously, it was held in Chennai in 1986 and 2007.
•Theme: “Compassion through Poetry”
Various MoUs/Agreements were recently exchanged during Official Visit of Prime Minister of Bangladesh to India
•Bangladesh opens Chattogram, Mongla ports for India trade: The Port of Mongla is the second busiest seaport of Bangladesh.
•MoU on withdrawal of 1.82 cusec of water from Feni river by India for drinking water supply, scheme for Sabroom town, Tripura, India:
•Feni River is a river in southeastern Bangladesh [The Feni River originates in South Tripura district and flows through Sabroom town and then enters Bangladesh.] 
Larger pictorial warnings
•A new study has shown that large health warnings on tobacco packets with plain packaging can be highly effective in conveying ill effects of tobacco to people.
•Packs with 85% graphical warnings were perceived to be more effective in increasing noticeability of the warnings and conveying the intended health message.
•Nearly one million tobacco-related deaths take place in India every year
The revenue earned through tobacco excise duty during the same period was a paltry 17% of the health burden of tobacco
•larger images on both sides of the packet are the most( not most!) effective and powerful way to communicate health risks to this population
National e-Assessment Scheme (NeAC) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•NeAC will be an independent office that will look after the work of e-Assessment scheme which is recently notified for faceless e-assessment for income tax payers.
•There would be a NeAC in Delhi to be headed by Principal Chief Commissioner of Income Tax (Pr.CCIT).
•In view of the dynamic and all India jurisdiction of all officers of NeAC and ReAC, this kind of connective and collaborative effort of officers is likely to lead to better quality of assessments.
2019 Nobel Prize in Medicine: has been awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza
“for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”
•The oxygen-sensing ability of the body has a role in the immune system and the earliest stages of development inside the womb.
•If oxygen levels are low, it can trigger the production of red blood cells or the construction of blood vessels to remedy this.
•More red blood cells mean the body is able to carry more oxygen and is why athletes train at altitude.
Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, engineer, industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite, in his last will and testament in 1895, gave the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine, Literature, and Peace, to be called the “Nobel Prizes”.
•In 1968, the sixth award, the Prize in Economic Sciences was started.
Stubble burning
•Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat
•More than 4500 villages in Punjab and Haryana have been declared as Zero Stubble Burning Villages during 2018 as not a single crop burning incident was reported from these villages during the year
•Stubble burning results in emission of harmful gases such carbon diaoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide along with particulate matter.
•The existing Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme must be so interpreted as to enable the States concerned to wholly or partly deny the benefit of MSP to those who continue to burn the crop residue : Supreme Court
•[As many as eight districts in Punjab and three in Haryana have been identified as contributing around 62% of the total crop burning emission]
•It is the first ever national digital platform on oral health information and knowledge dissemination.
•Launched recently by the Health and Family Welfare Ministry in collaboration with AIIMS and other stakeholders.
•Aim: To sensitize the public about the significance of maintaining optimum oral health and equips them with the tools and knowledge to do so, including awareness on the nearest oral health service facility.
Satnami Rebellion
•The Satnami sect was founded by a saint named “Birbhan” in 1657 in Narnaul in Haryana. The major religious activity of this sect is to chant and meditate the true names {Sat-Nam} of God specially Rama and Krishna.
This sect is thought to be an offshoot of Ravidasi sect and comprised of lower strata of the Hindu society, particularly, leather workers, sweepers, carpenters, Goldsmiths etc.
•The followers of this sect kept their heads shaven (thus called Mundiyas}) and abstained from liquor and meat.
revolt of 1672
•The revolt triggered when a Mughal soldier killed a Satnami. The Satnamis killed the soldier in revenge and in turn Mughal soldiers were sent to teach them a lesson. Some 5,000 Satnamis stood up in arms and routed the Mughal troops in the town, drove away the Mughal administrators and set up their own administration under their leader Birbhan. •The rebellion was crushed when Aurangzeb himself took personal command and sent 10,000 troops with artillery to crush the Satnamis. In the sort of a large battle, some 2000 Satnamis were slain.
•This was followed by an attempt to pursue and kill every member of the Satnami sect, thus a kind of genocide happened
WHO issues first World report on vision
•At least 2.2 billion people!! have vision impairment or blindness, of which over 1 billion cases could have been prevented or have yet to be addressed
•it is often far greater in people living in rural areas, those with low incomes, women, older people, people with disabilities, ethnic minorities and indigenous populations.
•Low- and middle-income regions of western and eastern sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have rates of blindness that are eight times higher than in all high-income countries
•US$14.3 billion is needed to address the backlog of 1 billion people living with vision impairment or blindness due to short and far sightedness, and cataracts
▫️Myopia (near-sightedness): Increased time spent indoors and increased
Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI)
•It is systematic and periodic transmission of “bulk” taxpayer information by the source country to the residence country,
•AEOI is the exchange of information between countries without having to request it.
•Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) Regime between Switzerland and India kicked off from September 1, 2019. Under this mechanism, India will start receiving information on all financial accounts held by Indian residents in Switzerland, for the year 2018.
•This is not a new measure. In 2016, India and Switzerland had signed an information-sharing deal on bank accounts, which was to come in effect from September 2019.
Nobel Prize in Physics View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Three scientists- Canadian-American cosmologist James Peebles and Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz– have jointly been awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in physics
•”This year’s Nobel Prize in Physics rewards new understanding of the universe’s structure and history, and the first discovery of a planet orbiting a solar-type star outside our solar system
▫️James Peebles won one-half of the prize(50%)” for theoretical discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of “how the Universe evolved after the Big Bang“
•His work showed that the matter known to us — such as stars, planets, and ourselves — only makes up five percent(5%), while the other 95 percent is made up of “unknown dark matter and dark energy”.
▫️Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz:
•They shared the prize for their discovery of an exoplanet outside our solar system orbiting a solar-type star in the Milky Way.
•They were able to detect a gaseous ball similar in size to Jupiter, orbiting a star 50 light years from our own Sun.
Global Competitiveness Index: by World Economic Forum
•The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), which was launched in 1979, maps the competitiveness landscape of 141 economies through 103 indicators organised into 12 pillars.
Compared to last year, India has moved down 10 places to rank 68th. India was ranked 58th last year
[It is among the worst-performing BRICS nations along with Brazil (ranked even lower than India at 71st this year)]
•Major shortcomings: limited ICT (information, communications and technology) adoption, poor health conditions and low healthy life expectancy
With a ratio of female workers to male workers of 0.26, India has been ranked very low at 128th place
•Asia-Pacific is the most competitive region in the world, followed closely by Europe and North America.
•The United States may have lost out to Singapore overall, but it remains an innovation powerhouse.
Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP)
•Approved by the Supreme Court in 2016.
•It works only as an emergency measure.
•As such, the plan does not include action by various state governments to be taken throughout the year to tackle industrial, vehicular and combustion emissions.
•When the air quality shifts from poor to very poor, the measures listed have to be followed since the plan is incremental in nature.
•It has created a step-by-step plan for the entire Delhi-NCR region and getting on board several agencies including pollution control boards, industrial area authorities, municipal corporations, regional officials of the India Meteorological Department, and others
Rafale Fighter Jet:
•First of 36 Rafale Fighter Jets Delivered to India by France.
•Rafale is a Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA).
•Rafale is a French word meaning “gust of wind”.
•The engines push the Rafale to attain a high speed of 1.8 Mach (1912 kmph) and a range of more than 3700 km with 3 drop tanks
Ganga Amantran Abhiyan:
•It is a month-long exploratory open-water rafting and kayaking expedition, covering nearly 2,500 kilometers from Devprayag in Uttarakhand to Ganga Sagar in West Bengal.
•This is the first ever effort by the National Mission for Clean Ganga to raft across the entire stretch of the river
Saturn is the planet with the highest number of moons:(82) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Recently the discovery of 20 new moons of Saturn has made Saturn the planet with the highest number of moons (82) .
The previous record- holder, Jupiter, has 79.
•This was announced by the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center.
Unrepresented tribes of Meghalaya:
•Government of Meghalaya has decided to exclude ‘unrepresented tribes’ from the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
•The five minor tribes namely, Bodo-Kachari, Hajong, Koch, Mann, and Rabha are clubbed together as ‘unrepresented tribes’ for nomination in Meghalaya’s autonomous tribal councils. (They are indigenous to Meghalaya.)
C40 Cities World Mayors Summit is being held in Copenhagen.
•C40 is a network of the world’s megacities committed to addressing climate change.
•C40 originally targeted megacities for their greater capacity to address climate change, C40 now offers three types of membership categories to reflect the diversity of cities taking action to address climate change, i.e, Megacities, Innovator cities and Observer cities
The WHO India Country Cooperation Strategy 2019–2023 : A Time of Transition’ has been launched.
•The India CCS is one of the first that fully aligns itself with the newly adopted WHO 13th General Programme of Work and its ‘triple billion’ targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO South-East Asia Region’s eight Flagship Priorities.
•The strategy document builds on other key strategic policy documents including India’s National Health Policy 2017, the many pathbreaking initiatives India has introduced — from Ayushman Bharat to its National Viral Hepatitis programme and promotion of digital health amongst others.
▫️WHO ‘Triple Billion’ targets:
•It is a strategic plan for the next five years.
1.One billion more people to be benefitted from Universal Health Coverage (UHC)
2.One billion more people to be protected from health emergencies
3.One billion more people to be covered for better health and well-being.
Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme
•Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship launches Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme with IIM Bangalore.
•It is a two-year fellowship programme to boost skill development at the district level.
•Designed under Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP).
•It aims to address the challenge of non-availability of personnel for implementation of various programmes at national, state and district levels
•Eligibility: Eligible fellows for the programme have to be in 21-30 years age-group, have a graduation degree from a recognized university and be citizens of India. Proficiency in official language of state of fieldwork will be mandatory.
•Fellows will receive a stipend of Rs. 50,000 in the first year and Rs. 60,000 in the second year
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi;-{PM-KISAN}
•Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year
•income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal installments of Rs. 2,000 each
•Cabinet approves relaxation of Aadhaar seeding of data of the beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-Kisan).[it has not been possible to get 100% Aadhaar seeding for release of funds as per the prescribed time schedule before release of instalments after 1st August, 2019.]
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a NASA mission to the moon within the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) in preparation for future manned missions to the moon and beyond (Mars).
•LRO is the first mission of NASA’s `New Vision for Space Exploration’.
•Provide measurements to characterize future robotic explorers, human lunar landing sites and to derive measurements that can be used directly in support of future Lunar Human Exploration Systems
•ISRO is attempting to figure out what happened to Chandrayaan-2’s Vikram with the help of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
Rehabilitation package to 5,300 J&K displaced families
•In the aftermath of partition of the country in 1947, thousands of families from Pakistan occupied areas of Jammu and Kashmir migrated to Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequently, during Indo-Pak Wars of 1965 and 1971, a large number of families were displaced from Chhamb Niabat area of Jammu and Kashmir
•Cabinet has approved Inclusion of 5,300 Displaced Persons (DP) families of Jammu & Kashmir in the Rehabilitation Package approved by the Cabinet on 30.11.2016 for Displaced Families of Pakistan-occupied Jammu and Kashmir (PoJK) and Chhamb under the PM’s Development Package 2015 for Jammu & Kashmir.
[These families initially opted to move outside the State of Jammu & Kashmir but later on returned and settled in the state]
World Mental Health Day 2019:October 10 every year
•It was first celebrated in 1992 at the initiative of the World Federation for Mental Health, a global mental health organization with members and contacts in more than 150 countries.
•It aims to mobilize efforts in support of mental health and provides an opportunity for everyone to talk and discuss mental health issues, and what more needs to be done.
•Theme: ‘Mental Health Promotion and Suicide Prevention.’
Gagan Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI) device
•It is a device that used for seamless and effective dissemination of emergency information and communication on disaster warnings, Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ) and Ocean States Forecasts (OSF) to fishermen.
•The device will help to provide information related to disaster warnings when fishermen move away from the coast beyond 10 to 12 kilometres
Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme “DHRUV”
•It is a 14 day learning programme, was launched recently from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Headquarters at Bengaluru
•The programme is called DHRUV (after the Pole Star) and every student to be called ‘DHRUV TARA’
•It is being started to identify and encourage talented children to enrich their skills and knowledge
•MoWCD in association with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Deendayal Research Institute is developing a POSHAN atlas under POSHAN abhiyan
•Its aim is to map the crops and food grains grown in different regions of the country so that nutritious protein rich food in local areas can be promoted.
•According to the World Bank Global Nutrition Report – 2018, malnutrition costs India at least $10 billion ($10 billion!😯! )annually in terms of lost productivity, illness and death
•The solution to tackling malnutrition lies in promoting regional cropping patterns and embracing local food that are rich in protein. The atlas will help tackle malnutrition effectively
•Recommendations to solve malnutrition by Food and Nutrition Security Analysis, India, 2019:
Recommendations are grouped by the three pillars of food security: availability, access and utilisation
【And awareness of all three (which is to be done by You and Me:)】
National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Survey report for 2015-19: released by the health ministry.
•Prevalence of diabetes in India has been recorded at 11.8% in the last four years with almost same percentage of men and women suffering from the disease
•Highest prevalence of diabetes (13.2%) was observed in the 70-79 years’ age group.
There are estimated 72.96 million cases of diabetes in adult population of India
•It is estimated that diabetic retinopathy was responsible for 1.06% of blindness and 1.16% of visual impairment globally in 2015
Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (Suman)
•It aims to provide dignified and quality health care at no cost to every woman and newborn visiting a public health facility [provide quality healthcare at zero cost to pregnant women, new mothers and newborns]
•Under the scheme, the beneficiaries visiting public health facilities are entitled to several free services
•All pregnant women, newborns and mothers up to 6 months of delivery will be able to avail several free health care services
India’s maternal mortality rate has declined from 254 per 1,00,000 live births in 2004-06 to 130 in 2014-16.
•Between 2001 and 2016, the infant mortality rate came down from 66 per 1,000 live births to 34.
Hindu Kush- Himalayan region and the climate change View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•To better gauge the impact of climate change on the Hindu Kush mountains India Meteorological Department (IMD) will collaborate with meteorological agencies in China and Pakistan, among others, to provide climate forecast services to countries in the region.
•The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region spans an area of more than 4.3 million square kilometres in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.
The region stores more snow and ice than anywhere else in the world outside the polar regions, giving its name: ’The Third Pole‘.
•It contains the world’s highest mountains, including all 14 peaks above 8,000 metres, is the source of 10 major rivers, and forms a formidable global ecological buffer.
•Climate change has become a major concern in the Third Pole.
•Mountain systems are particularly sensitive to climate change and the Third Pole region is home to some of the people most vulnerable to these changes in the world.
•The Third Pole Environment (TPE): TPE, an international research program, was launched in 2009 and focuses on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges.
‘Green wall’ of India View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The Centre is mulling an ambitious plan to create a green wall on North- Western part of India (Porbandar to Panipat)
•It will be a 1,400km long and 5km wide green belt from Gujarat to the Delhi-Haryana border, on the lines of the “Great Green Wall” running through the width of Africa, from Dakar (Senegal) to Djibouti, to combat climate change and desertification
•The green belt may not be contiguous, but would roughly cover the entire degraded Aravali range through a massive afforestation exercise
【Its good to read ‘Green wall’ after Third Pole region & Climate change】
Carpet Export Promotion Council (CEPC):
•It is a non-profit making organization.
•Setup in 1982 by the Ministry of Textiles.
•Objective: To promote export of Carpets, all types of Handmade / handmade knotted Carpets, Rugs, Floor Coverings & other allied Products from India.
Indian Handmade Carpet Industry is ranked No. 1 status in the international market achieved highest quantity both in terms of value and production in the world market
•It is a new antibiotic discovered in the soil of a tropical rainforest.
•It was recently isolated deep in the tropical forests of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico
•The antibiotic phazolicin is a class of peptide produced in the ribosome, and is part of a diverse class of natural products with a variety of biological uses
Asia Environmental Enforcement Award
•Senior Indian Forest Service (IFoS) officer Ramesh Pandey has been selected by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) for prestigious Asia Environmental Enforcement Award
•Ramesh Pandey is recognised for combating trans-boundary environmental crime.
•Pandey also introduced M-Stripes (Monitoring System for Tigers Intensive Protection & Ecological Status), a novel software-based patrolling in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve on the recommendation of National Tiger Conservation Authority
Election manifestos
•They are a formality, and their release is often no more than a photo-op in the campaign of political parties. (But now a days, They are frequently delayed, leaving no time for voters to go through the contents in order to make informed choices.)
•they are not legally enforceable documents
•manifesto shall not be released during the prohibitory periods (In Section 126 of the RP Act, the ‘prohibitory period’ signifies the “period of forty-eight hours ending with the hour fixed for conclusion of poll”)[before 48 hrs of voting!]
Kanyashree scheme
•The state government of West Bengal is setting up Kanyashree University in Nadia district and Kanyashree colleges across the state so as to empower girls
•Kanyashree is a conditional cash transfer scheme aiming at improving the status and wellbeing of the girl child by incentivising schooling of teenage girls and delaying their marriages until the age of 18.
•It received the United Nations Public Service Award last year.
•This initiative led to a “drastic reduction in child marriage, increase in female education and female empowerment.”
NASA ICON Mission View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has launched a satellite ICON to detect dynamic zones of Earth’s Ionosphere.
•The satellite Ionosphere Connection Explorer (ICON) was launched from an aircraft over the Atlantic Ocean near the Florida coast.
•The ICON satellite will study the Earth’s Ionosphere. It includes various layers of the uppermost atmosphere where free electrons flow freely.
•The ICON mission is the 39th successful launch and satellite deployment by Pegasus rocket.[This mission is operated by the University of California]
The ionosphere: is the ionized part of Earth’s upper atmosphere, from about 60 km (37 mi) to 1,000 km (620 mi) altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
•The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important role in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere
‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT)
•It is a draft proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.
•It is a proposed treaty which intends to criminalize all forms of international terrorism and deny terrorists, their financiers and supporters access to funds, arms, and safe havens.
▫️Universal definition of terrorism: no good terrorist or bad terrorist.
•Ban on all groups regardless of country of operation, cut off access to funds and safe havens.
•Prosecution of all groups including cross border groups etc.
There was no change in the five countries most impacted by terrorism, which include Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Syria and Pakistan. All of these countries have been ranked in the worst five every year since 2013.
•[Vice President appeals to world community to ensure early conclusion of UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism]
Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
•A platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure.
•It will create a mechanism to assist countries to upgrade their capacities and practices, with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
•According to a recent estimate by the World Bank, Cyclone Fani, which hit Odisha in May this year, caused damage to the tune of $4 billion😲!.
•The losses in the Kerala floods last year could be in excess of $4.4 billion
•In the US, there were 10 climate change disasters this year in which losses exceeded S1 billion.
elastocaloric effect View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a cooling effect produced when rubber bands are twisted and untwisted.
• In the elastocaloric effect, the transfer of heat works much the same way as when fluid refrigerants are compressed and expanded. When a rubber band is stretched, it absorbs heat from its environment, and when it is released, it gradually cools down.
Emperor penguins: View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is one of Antarctica’s most iconic species.
•It is listed as ‘near threatened’ in the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
•Experts have demanded that the IUCN status of species should be changed to ‘vulnerable’ from ‘near threatened
•It is a Joint Military Exercise between India and Japan.
•Exercise DHARMA GUARDIAN is an annual training event which is being conducted in India since 2018.
Mobile App “mHariyali”:
•Launched by the Ministry of housing and Urban Affairs to encourage public engagement in planting trees and Green drives. The application provides automatic geo – tagging of plants. It will hence enable the nodal officers to periodically monitor the plantation.
•The app is aimed to encourage Public engagement in planting trees and other such Green drives.
Chalukya dynasty View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. During this period, they ruled as three related, but individual dynasties.
•The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from their capital Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century
•Pulakesi II (609 – 642) C.E. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from their capital Vengi until about the 11th century
•In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) till the end of the 12th century
•[Inscriptions found on an ancient temple at Huligemmana Kolla near Pattadakalu in Karnataka indicate that the place may have once been the royal burial site of the Chalukya dynasty.]
UN Security Council
•The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members.
[The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members]
•India’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council (for 2021-22 term )has been endorsed unanimously by the Asia Pacific group, which comprises 55 countries, including Pakistan
[India has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council seven time previously]
•India and Sierra Leone (western african country with capital ‘Freetown’ ) seek to expand bilateral ties and push for UNSC reforms.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
•It is a regional development bank [established on 19 December 1966.]
•headquartered — Manila, Philippines.
•official United Nations Observer
•GoI has signed a 190 million USD loan with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to upgrade road transport in the state of Rajasthan.
G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance on Technology Governance
•It is a league of 15 of world’s leading city networks and technology governance organisations that will work towards advancing responsible and ethical use of smart city technologies.
•Established in June 2019, in conjunction with G20 Summit held in Osaka, Japan.
•It seeks to create global norms and policy standards for the use of connected devices in public spaces.
•The aim of the alliance is to promote the responsible and ethical use of smart city technologies by establishing global norms and policy standards for the use of connected devices in public spaces
•India has joined the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance on Technology Governance.
C40 Clean Air Cities Declaration
•declaration pledge to: Set ambitious pollution reduction targets within two years that meet or exceed national commitments, putting them on a path towards meeting World Health Organization guidelines
•Implement substantive clean air policies by 2025 that address the unique causes of pollution in their cities
•Clean Air Cities Declaration’ was unveiled at the C40 World Mayors Summit in Copenhagen, an event that occurs once every three years and is designed to implement “substantive clean air policies by 2025”.
International Day for Disaster Reduction: 13 October
•In 1989, the UN General Assembly through a resolution had designated the second Wednesday of October as International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction.
•Later on December 21, 2009, the Assembly adopted a new resolution on in which it designated 13 October as the date to commemorate the Day and it also changed the day’s name to International Day for Disaster Reduction.
•The main objective of the observance is to raise awareness of how people are taking action to reduce their risk to disasters.
Theme: Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services.
10th Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav is being held in Jabalpur, MP.
•Organised by Ministry of Culture under the Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat initiative.
•Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav was conceived in the year 2015. It is organised with an intent to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the country in all its rich and varied dimensions, viz, Handicrafts, Cuisine, Painting, Sculpture and Performing Arts-Folk, Tribal, Classical and Contemporary- all in one place
SARAS Aajeevika Mela:
•It is an initiative under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY – NRLM).
•The objective of the initiative is to bring the rural women SHGs – Self Help Groups under one platform.
•This is to help them show – case their skills, sell their products and build linkages with buyers. Through the initiative the women will get exposure to understand the demand of urban customers
Hagibis Typhoon:
•It is the latest typhoon and is said to be Japan’s worst storm in decades
•Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons are all tropical storms. They are all the same thing but are given different names depending on where they appear
•Hurricanes are tropical storms that form over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific(near Maxico). Cyclones are formed over the South Pacific and Indian Ocean. Typhoons are formed over the Northwest Pacific Ocean(near east china)
National Medical Commission
•National Medical Commission Act 2019 proposes set up a National Medical Commission with 25 members.
•Appointment: These members will be appointed by the central government on the recommendation of a committee.
Composition: The members will include a chairperson, who must be a senior medical practitioner and academic with at least 20 years of experience, 10 ex officio members and 14 part-time members
•The NMC will frame policies for regulating medical institutions and medical professionals, assessing the requirements of healthcare-related human resources and infrastructure, and ensuring compliance by the State Medical Councils of the regulations made under the Bill.
Besides this, the NMC will frame guidelines for determination of fees for up to 50 per cent of the seats in private medical institutions and deemed universities which are regulated under the Bill.
•Union health ministry on Monday finalized 25 members of the recently constituted National Medical Commission (NMC)
India- China Informal Summit at Mahabalipuram
•Mahabalipuram, or Mamallapuram, 56 km south of Chennai on the Tamil Nadu coast had ancient links with Buddhism and China through the maritime outreach of the Pallava dynasty.
•The name Mamallapuram derives from Mamallan, or “great warrior”, a title by which the Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630-668 AD) was known. [ It was during his reign that Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese Buddhist monk-traveller, visited the Pallava capital at Kanchipuram.]
•PM Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping met in the ancient coastal town of Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu for a second Informal Summit. [The two countries convened their first Informal Summit in central China’s Wuhan in April 2018]
‘Dark Grey’ list of FATF
•According to FATF rules there is one essential stage between ‘Grey’ and ‘Black’ lists, referred to as ‘Dark Grey’.
•‘Dark Grey’ means issuance of a strong warning, so that the country concerned gets one last chance to improve, another official said.
•Pakistan is on the verge of strong action by the international terror financing watchdog FATF and the country may be put in the ‘Dark Grey’ list, the last warning to improve.
•If Pakistan continues with the ‘grey list’ or put in ‘Dark Grey’ list, it would be very difficult for the country to get financial aid from the IMF, the World Bank and the European Union, making its financial condition more precarious
•Pakistan has been described as a safe haven for terrorists by western media and the United States Defense Secretary
Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2019: Published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and UNCTAD
•Non-tariff measures (NTMs) have increased in the past two decades and are affecting trade as well sustainable development goals (SDGs) in Asian countries.
•NTMs affect 58 per cent of the trade in Asia-Pacific.
•The average cost of these measures alone amounts to 1.6 per cent of gross domestic product, roughly $1.4 trillion globally.
•NTMs allude to technical measures such as sanitary (for protection of human and animal health), and phytosanitary (for protection of plant health), or SPS, and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), which are related to environmental and sustainable standards that are set to block or slow down trade instead of regular tariffs or duties.
2019 Nobel Prizes View — uploads.disquscdn.com
▫️The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019:
1.James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”.
2.Michel Mayor and 3.Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”.
▫️The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019:
John B. Goodenough😁, .M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”
▫️The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019:
William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability
▫️The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019:
Polish author Olga Tokarczuk and Austrian novelist Peter Handke would receive 2018 and 2019 Nobel Prize for Literature ( prize was postponed in 2018 after the academy was hit by a sexual assault scandal.)
▫️The Nobel Peace Prize 2019:
Abiy Ahmed Ali (PM of Ethiopia) “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”
▫️Nobel Prize in Economics 2019 (Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel)
Abhijit Banerjee(Kolkata-born NRI) and Esther Duflo( Abhijit’s wife) won the Nobel Prize in Economics, along with economist Michael Kremer, for their “experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”
Facebook’s new cryptocurrency- Libra
•Despite several high-profile defections and intense criticism from US regulators and politicians, Facebook officially launches Libra.
•it is a digital asset built by Facebook and powered by a new Facebook-created version of blockchain, the encrypted technology used by bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
•The currency will be serviced by a collective of companies called the “Libra Association”. It functions as what is known as a “stablecoin”, pegged to existing assets like the dollar or euro, in the aim of making it less subject to the volatility that many cryptocurrencies experience
•The Libra Association is described by Facebook as an independent, not-for-profit organisation based in Switzerland
LOTUS-HR project: View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The launch of the second phase of the Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS-HR) program was recently held. It is located in Delhi.
•The LOTUS-HR project is jointly supported by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India and Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.
•The project was initiated in July 2017 and aims to demonstrate a novel holistic (waste) water management approaches that will produce clean water which can be reused for various purposes.
World Standards Day: 14 October
• The aim of WSD is to raise awareness among regulators, industry and consumers as to the importance of standardization to the global economy.
•The first WSD was observed in 1970
Global Hunger Index-2019;-{released annually by ‘Welthungerhilfe & Concern Worldwide’} View — uploads.disquscdn.com
↪GHI scores are based on 4 main indicators⤵
1.UNDERNOURISHMENT↪ reflecting insufficient caloric intake
2.CHILD WASTING↪low weight-for-height U-5
3.CHILD STUNTING↪low height-for-age(U-5)
4.CHILD MORTALITY↪deaths per 1000 live birth(U-5)
India ranked 102 on the index among 117 qualifying countries with a score of 30.3 [serious hunger]
•Pakistan (94) : in 2015 pak was at 106 (and india was at 93)
•Around 90 per cent of children aged between 6 and 23 months in the country don’t even get minimum required food 😔!
Randomised Controlled Trial
•It is an experiment that is designed to isolate the influence that a certain intervention or variable has on an outcome or event.
•At any point in time, there are multiple factors that work in tandem to influence various social events.
•RCTs allow economists and other social science researchers to isolate the individual impact that a certain factor alone has on the overall event
•Randomised controlled trials promise to overcome this problem through the use of randomly picked samples.
•[The new Economics Nobel laureates – Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer – are considered to be instrumental in using randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of various policy interventions to alleviate poverty.]
The Kurds View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•At an estimated 25 million to 35 million population, they are the world’s largest stateless ethnic group.
The majority among the Kurdish people today are Sunni Muslim, but there are adherents of other faiths too, including Sufism and other mystical practices.
•They live in the highlands of southern and eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, the northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran, and parts of south Armenia, and are a minority in each of these countries
•The Kurds have never achieved nation-state status, except in Iraq, where they have a regional government called Iraqi Kurdistan
•Recently, the Trump administration ordered US troops to step aside from the border in northern Syria, effectively paving the way for Turkey to launch an offensive against US-backed Kurdish forces who they regard as enemies.
IMF’s World Economic Outlook (WEO) 2019 View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•India(6.1%) retains its rank as the world’s fastest-growing major economy, tying with China(6.1%)
•However, India’s economy is projected to pick up and grow by 7 per cent in the 2020 fiscal year (and Chinese 5.8%)
•United States : 2.1%
•Japan : 0.9%
•Russia : 1.1%
• Southi Arebia : 0.2%
• South Africa : 0.7%
• Pakistan : 3.3% ( 2.4% in 2020)
Microbial fuel cells
•It is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the action of microorganisms
•Microbial fuel cells have been installed at a zoo in London.
•Using these cells, a plant has taken the botanical world’s first selfie
•Under sunlight, plants produce sugars and oxygen from water and CO2 (photosynthesis).
•These sugars do not remain in the leaves, but are transported throughout the plant to the stem and roots.
One Nation One FASTag
•The scheme will be implemented from December 1, 2019, and can be availed upon activation by new cars having Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags on national and state highways throughout the country.
•The plan aims to integrate the collection of toll digitally and ensure seamless mobility of vehicles across India.
•The payment method is a part of the National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) programme.
•A FASTag is valid for five years and needs to be recharged only as per requirement.
•Cameras at toll booths will take photos of passengers in a vehicle, which will be useful for the Ministry of Home Affairs as there will be a record of a vehicle’s movement
2019 Booker prize
•1)The Testaments by Margaret Atwood and 2)Girl, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo have jointly won this year’s Booker prize
•this year the jury was unanimous after several rounds that this year’s award must be shared
•prize has been shared in the past.[The first time this happened was in 1974 when Nadine Gordimer and Stanley Middleton won its together]
•Booker prize: Awarded every year to the best novel that was “written in English and published in the UK or Ireland”.
Launched in 1969.
The National Blindness & Visual Impairment Survey India 2015-2019
•survey looks at district-wise prevalence of blindness and visual impairment.
•The prevalence of blindness is highest among those who are at least 80 years old (11.6%).
• Highest impairment (50+) : Bijnor,UP
• Lowest impairment (50+) : Thoubal, Manipur
World Food Day:
•Celebrated on October 16 every year to raise awareness on the issues of poverty and hunger.
•Established by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in November 1979.
•The theme of World Food Day 2019 is “Our Actions Are Our Future. Healthy Diets for A #ZeroHunger World”.
2019 UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation
•Sixteen projects from five countries – Australia, Bhutan, China, India and New Zealand – have been recognized by the international Jury of conservation experts in this year’s Awards
•Awardees from India include:
Vikram Sarabhai Library, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India.
Maritime States Development Council:
•MSDC is an apex advisory body for the development of the Maritime sector and aims to ensure integrated development of Major and non-Major Ports.
•The MSDC was constituted in May, 1997 to assess in consultation with State Governments, the future development of existing and new Minor Ports
What is a Waqf View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is also known as hubous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law
•which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets
•A non-Muslim can also create a waqf but the individual must profess Islam and the objective of creating the waqf has to be Islamic.
Waqf Board : It is a juristic person with power to acquire and hold property and to transfer any such property.
•The board can sue and be sued in a court as it is recognised as a legal entity or juristic person.
[Sunni Waqf Board has offered to drop its claim to the disputed temple-mosque site in Ayodhya and has no objection to the land being taken over by the government for a Ram Temple, a mediation panel of the Supreme Court has said in its report]
Van Dhan Internship Programme: Organised by TRIFED under Ministry of Tribal Affairs
•The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood development of tribal gatherers and artisans.
•It mainstreams the tribal community by promoting primary level value addition to MFP at grassroots level
•Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a major source of livelihood for tribals living in forest areas. The importance of MFPs for this section of the society can be gauged from the fact that around 100 million forest dwellers depend on MFPs for food, shelter, medicines and cash income
Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme
•For strengthening and scaling up ‘Eat Right India’ movement & support small and medium scale food businesses to comply with the food safety laws and facilitate licensing and registration, hygiene ratings and training.
•Apart from strengthening food safety, this scheme would also create new employment opportunities for youth, particularly with food and nutrition background.
Eat Right Movement:
•It was launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
•The movement aims to cut down salt/sugar and oil consumption by 30% in three years.
•It also aims to engage and enable citizens to improve their health and well-being by making the right food choices
State of the World’s Children report 2019 : released by UNICEF
•The report has ranked countries in the order of ‘highest burden of death among children of under-5’ to the ‘lowest burden of death among children of under-5’.
•The report analyses the global state of children’s health vis-a-vis malnutrition, obesity, anaemia and other health issues
•One in three children(33%) under the age of five years — around 200 million children worldwide — are either undernourished or overweight
•In India, every second child is affected by some form of malnutrition.
•35% of Indian children suffer from stunting due to lack of nutrition, 17% suffer from wasting, 33% are underweight and 2% are overweight
•UNICEF has laid out recommendations for nutritious, safe and affordable diets for children across the world:
like empower families to reduce demand for unhealthy food.etc.
20th Livestock Census: released by Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying
•Total Livestock population is 535.78 million- an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
•Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak)-79 Million in 2019- an increase of about 1% over the previous census.
•Livestock products comprised 32 per cent of the total value of agriculture and allied activities in 2006-07 which was a noticeable increase from 27 per cent in 1999-2000
•when we think of the goal of inclusive growth, we should not forget that from equity and livelihood perspectives, livestock rearing must be at the centre of the stage in poverty alleviation programmes.
Project Soli: (Google announced Project Soli in 2015) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Google’s Soli is a purpose-built chip to track your motion on a microscopic scale.
•It uses miniature radar for real-time motion tracking of the human hand; it’s able to track sub-millimetre motion at high speeds with great accuracy
•it works by emitting electromagnetic waves with objects within the beam reflecting information back to the antenna.
•Information gathered from the reflected signal – things like time delay or frequency changes – give the device information about the interaction.
•Recently launched Google Pixel 4 (mobile) uses a radar-based Soli chip to introduce Motion Sense, a feature that provides similar touchless gesture-based controls.
Eat Right Jacket’: Launched by Mo Health and Family Welfare.
•These jackets will be used by the field staff.
•This jacket has a smart design to hold tech devices like tablets/smart phone, a QR code and RFID tag for identification and tracking.
Eat Right Jhola’:Launched by Mo Health and Family Welfare. View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a reusable cloth bag shall replace plastic bags for grocery shopping in various retail chains
2nd phase of GOAL: Digital Skill Training Programme for Tribal Women:
•Jointly launched by Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Facebook.
•Aims at encouraging, inspiring and guiding tribal women from across India to become local level digitally literate leaders.
•The program will give technical support to the socially and economically marginalized women for their needs to succeed, using the technology they may otherwise have not had access to
Tulagi Island: View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•It is a part of Solomon Islands.
•A Chinese company recently signed an agreement to lease this entire island after Beijing recruited the Pacific nation as its latest ally in the strategically important region
•Skandagupta succeeded his father Kumaragupta I as the ruler of Gupta empire. He ruled from 455 A.D. to 467 A.D. •The Gupta period is known as the golden period of ancient Indian history and Skandagupta Vikramaditya is known as the Saviour of India as he successfully fought the battle against the invading Huns
•Skandagupta issued five types of gold coins: Archer type, King and queen type, Chhatra type, Lion-slayer type and Horseman type.
Veer Savarkar
•Born on May 28, 1883 in Bhagur, a city in Maharashtra’s Nashik.
•In his teenage, Savarkar formed a youth organization. Known as Mitra Mela, this organization was put into place to bring in national and revolutionary ideas.
•He was against foreign goods and propagated the idea of Swadeshi. In 1905, he burnt all the foreign goods in a bonfire on Dussehra.
•In his book, The History of the war of Indian Independence, Savarkar wrote about the guerilla warfare tricks used in 1857 Sepoy Mutiny.
•The book was banned by Britishers, but Madam Bhikaji Cama published the book in Netherlands, Germany and France, which eventually reached many Indian revolutionaries.
•He was arrested in 1909 on charges of plotting an armed revolt against the Morle-Minto reform.
•He founded the two-nation theory in his book ‘Hindutva’ calling Hindus and Muslims two separate nations. In 1937, Hindu Mahasabha passed it as a resolution.
•In 2002, Port Blair airport at Andaman and Nicobar’s Island was renamed after Veer Savarkar International Airport
•Mr Savarkar was only an accused in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, and Mr Godse was convicted (though he was acquitted due to lack of evidence, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was convinced that Savarkar was guilty)
•He also Worked on abolishment of untouchability in Ratnagiri. Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar also compared his work to Lord Buddha
Legislative council
•Legislative council abolished in J&K as per Section 57 of the J&K Reorganisation Bill, 2019, which reduced the State to the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh.
•India has a bicameral system i.e., two Houses of Parliament. At the state level, the equivalent of the Lok Sabha is the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly; that of the Rajya Sabha is the Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council
•Under Article 169 of the constitution, Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state if the Legislative Assembly of that state passes a resolution to that effect by a special majority
▫️How are members of the Council elected?
•1/3rd of members are elected by members of the Assembly.
•1/3rd by electorates consisting of members of municipalities, district boards and other local authorities in the state.
•1/12th by an electorate consisting of teachers.
•1/12th by registered graduates.
•The remaining 1/6th members are nominated by the Governor
Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report: released by WHO
•The report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress in the response at global, regional and country levels for India
•Tuberculosis incidence rate in India has decreased by almost 50,000 patients over the past one year (26.9 lakh TB patients in India in 2018).
•Incidence per 1,00,000 population has decreased from 204 in 2017 to 199 in 2018.
•TB remains the top infectious killer in the world claiming over 4,000 lives a day
•The world must accelerate progress if it is to reach the Sustainable Development Goal of ending TB by 2030
•Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.
•The highest burden of TB in 2018 is in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Africa.
What Is in the New Brexit Deal
•UK will honour EU rules till the end of 2020.
•Rights of EU citizens living in the UK and UK citizens in the EU will be guaranteed.
•Northern Ireland will be aligned with the EU single market for goods while it will legally part with the EU.
•There will be customs borders between Great Britain and the Irish Island etc.
•In a 2016 referendum, Britons choose to leave the EU
•May’s Brexit defeats led to her political downfall, and she resigned her premiership in June.
•New head- Boris Johnson took over in July.
•Johnson promised that he would deliver Brexit for the United Kingdom, “do or die,” by the current deadline of October 31. Johnson has said he’ll achieve what May failed to do
•Leaving the EU without any deal promises chaos for both the UK and the rest of Europe — yet some Brexit devotees are willing to take the risk because they believe it would deliver a swift and decisive end to the UK’s relationship with the EU
India Innovation Index 2019 : released by NITI Aayog
•NITI Aayog with Institute for Competitiveness as the knowledge partner has released the India Innovation Index (III) 2019.
•Karnataka is the most innovative major state in India.
•Others in top 10: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Telangana, Haryana, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh😁!(due to NCR:), West Bengal, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh.
•The top ten major states are majorly concentrated in southern and western India.
•Sikkim and Delhi take the top spots among the north- eastern & hill states, and union territories/city states/small states respectively
•Delhi, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh are the most efficient states in translating inputs into output.
•The index is a great beginning to improve the environment of innovation in the country as it focuses on both the input and output components of the idea.
Vikram Sarabhai : born on August 12, 1919.
•Sarabhai was instrumental in forming India’s future in astronomy and setting up the country’s space research facilities
•Based on his persuasion, the Indian government agreed to set up the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962.
•Sarabhai was the first chairman of the committee.
•The INCOSPAR was restructured and renamed as Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969
•He also set up India’s first rocket launch site in Thumba, a small village near the Thiruvananthapuram airport in Kerala.
Vikram Sarabhai was also responsible for bringing cable television to India
•He was one of the founding members of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA).
•Vikram Sarabhai received the Padma Bhushanin 1966 for his contribution to India’s progress.
• He was also awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1972, posthumously
【Don’t you think ,Sarabhai Sir should has given Bharat Ratna at his 100th birth anniversary】
Delhi’s odd- even rule
•if a vehicle’s registration number ends with an odd digit, it will be allowed on the road on January 1, while that ending with an even number can be driven on the second, and so on
•The capital city of India is facing worst phase of pollution and it could lead to devastating effect if pollution remains untreated or inadequately treated
•This system was implemented in Beijing in 2008 just before the summer Olympics. While the rule was initially said to be temporary, it turned out to be so effective the government made it permanent
Article 161:
•Deals with Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
•It states, the Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends
Air quality index:
•Air Quality Index (AQI) is a tool for effective dissemination of air quality information to people.
•There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
•AQI will consider eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period)
Mount Kilimanjaro: View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Differently-abled man from Ernakulam district scales Mount Kilimanjaro.
•Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.
•It is the highest mountain in Africa, with its summit about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) from its base, and 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level.
Saharan silver ant: View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Saharan silver ant is the fastest of the world’s 12,000 known ant species.
•It clocks a blistering 855 millimetres — nearly a metre — per second.
•It covers 108 times its own body length per second 🙃!
Web tax in Italy:
•Italy has approved a new tax on digital companies as part of its 2020 draft budget.
•The levy will oblige firms such as Facebook, Google and Amazon, to pay a 3% levy on Internet transactions
Mt Paektu:
•Mount Paektu or Changbai (in Chinese) is a volcanic mountain that last erupted over 1,000 years ago.
•Situated at the border between Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China.
•At a height of about 9,000 feet, it is also the highest peak in the Korean peninsula.
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM):
•AFM, being referred to as a ‘polio-like condition’, has been tested negative for the polio virus, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States.
•It is a neurological illness. It is a weakness or paralysis of the limbs. In case of myelitis, there’s inflammation of the spinal cord.
•The symptoms of AFM, particularly, weakening of limbs, are similar to polio
•It is a bilateral joint exercise between Indian Air Force and Royal Air Force Oman (RAFO).
•The exercise will enhance inter-operability during mutual operations between the two Air Forces and will provide an opportunity to learn from each other’s best practices
World’s first graduate-level research-based AI University: To be set up in UAE.
•Named after Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.
•This university will enable graduate students, governments and businesses to advance the artificial intelligence field.
Guru Ravidas: (1398– 1540) 142 years?!
•He was a poet and saint of the Bhakti movement.
•Born in Varanasi to the ‘untouchable’ leather tanners caste.
•He is believed to be a disciple of the bhakti saint-poet Ramanandaand a contemporary of the bhakti saint-poet Kabir.
•One of his famous disciples was the saint, Mirabai.
•Ravidas taught removal of social divisions of caste and gender, and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms
•Yielding to the protests against the Supreme Court-directed demolition of a Guru Ravidas temple in south Delhi, the Centre has agreed to allot the same site to the devotees to construct a new temple
How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India
•The Chief Justice of India is traditionally appointed by the outgoing Chief Justice of India on the day of his (or her) retirement.
[By convention, the outgoing Chief Justice of India selects the most senior then-sitting Supreme Court judge.]
•Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has recommended Justice Sharad Arvind Bobde as his successor and the 47th Chief Justice of India in keeping with convention and the seniority norm.
•Article 124(1) of the Indian Constitution says “there shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India”.
•The procedure is initiated by the Law Minister seeking the recommendation of the outgoing CJI at the ‘appropriate time’, which is near to the date of retirement of the incumbent CJI.
•The CJI sends his recommendation to the Law Ministry; and in the case of any qualms, the CJI can consult the collegium regarding the fitness of an SC judge to be elevated to the post.
Naga Peace Accord View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The British annexed Assam in 1826, and in 1881, the Naga Hills too became part of British India. [The first sign of Naga resistance was seen in the formation of the Naga Club in 1918, which told the Simon Commission in 1929 “to leave us alone to determine for ourselves as in ancient times”]
•In 1946 came the Naga National Council (NNC), which declared Nagaland an independent state on August 14, 1947.
•The NNC resolved to establish a “sovereign Naga state” and conducted a “referendum” in 1951, in which “99 per cent” supported an “independent” Nagaland
•Greater Nagalim” comprising “all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas”, along with Nagaland. That included several districts of Assam, Arunachal and Manipur, as also a large tract of Myanmar [The Nagaland Assembly has endorsed the ‘Greater Nagalim’ demand]
•Four years after the government inked the Naga peace accord in 2015, the Centre has now said that the process had almost concluded, despite the fact that the talks had hit a roadblock in its final stages.
Asbestos in Baby Powder
•Asbestos is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals. All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fiber being composed of many microscopic ‘fibrils’ that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes.
•When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. These desirable properties led to asbestos being used very widely.
•Johnson and Johnson (J&J) recalled 33,000 bottles of one lot of its talcum powder (Baby Powder) supplied in the United States (US) on October 18, 2019, as asbestos was found in it.
UN Human Rights Council
•Established in 2006 with the aim of promoting and protecting human rights around the globe, as well as investigating alleged human rights violations.
•Made up of 47 member states, which are selected by the UN General Assembly on a staggered basis each year for three-year-long terms.
•Members serve for a period of three years and are not eli
National milk sample safety quality survey: released by the Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI).
•This is the first-of-its-kind comprehensive survey FSSAI has conducted through a third-party agency.
•It covered both organised (retailers and processors) as well as non-organised (local dairy farms, milk vendors and milk mandis) sectors.
•In the survey of 2,607 processed milk samples, 10.4% had safety issues while another 37.7% missed at least one quality standard.
On an average only, 7% of the milk had safety issues (93% milk is safe) , and that most of the milk sold both in raw and processed form was fit for human consumption
•Aflatoxins are toxins produced by certain fungi which are generally found in agricultural crops like maize, peanuts, cotton seed and others. They are carcinogenic in nature, which means they can cause cancer.
Community policing scheme ‘Prahari’
•Launched by Delhi Police.
•To prevent crime and maintain law and order in Delhi.
•Under this scheme, civil personnel such as chowkidars:) and security guards deployed in the commercial and VIP areas will act as the eyes and ears of the police.
What is Merchant Discount Rate?
•It is a fee charged from a merchant by a bank for accepting payments from customers through credit and debit cards in their establishments
•In a move that may boost digital payments, businesses with an annual turnover of more than ₹50 crore will have to mandatorily offer electronic mode of payments to their customers from 1 November. Besides, no charges or merchant discount rate (MDR) will be levied on either customers or merchants.
Defence of Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2019 (DANX-19),
•It is a large scale joint services exercise, was recently conducted by Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC).
•Carried out by Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard.
World’s first female spacewalking team makes history:
•The world’s first female spacewalking team made history high above Earth on 18th October, floating out of the International Space Station to fix a broken part of the power network.
The team included astronauts Christina Koch and Jessica Meir.
•This marked the first time in a half-century of spacewalking that a woman floated out without a male crewmate
Shirui lily festival:
•Shirui Lily Festival inaugurated in Manipur.
•Shirui Lily Festival is an annual five-day State festival celebrated in Ukhrul district to spread awareness about the endangered state flower ‘Shirui Lily’ as well as to promote Ukhrul district as a potential tourist destination in Manipur
•Shirui Lily, or Lilium mackliniae, is the State Flower of Manipur found only in the upper ranges of Shirui Hills in Ukhrul district of Manipur.
Paramahansa Yogananda: (5 January 1893 – 7 March 1952) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•he was an Indian monk, yogi and guruwho introduced millions to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his organization Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF) / Yogoda Satsanga Society (YSS) of India.
[Kriya Yoga is “union (yoga) with the Infinite through a certain action or rite (kriya)]
•He is considered as the “Father of Yoga in the West.”
•He was the first major Indian teacher to settle in America, and the first prominent Indian to be hosted in the White House.
•He published his book Autobiography of a Yogi in 1946.
•Finance Minister Releases Commemorative Coin on Paramahansa Yogananda to Mark his 125th Birth Anniversary.
15 point reform charter for better functioning of Parliament
•Expressing concern over the functioning of parliamentary institutions in the country and erosion of public trust in them, Vice President Venkaiah Naidu has unveiled a 15-point reform charter.
The 15-point charter includes:
•Parties need to ensure attendance of at least 50% of their legislators all through the proceedings of the Houses by adopting a roster system.
•Review of anti-defection law.
•Review of the whip system which is “stifling reasonable dissent even on non-consequential matters”.
•Set up special courts for time-bound adjudication of criminal complaints against legislators.
•The representation of women in legislatures needs to be raised etc.
Corporate Social Responsibility
•It is the integration of socially beneficial programs and practices into a corporation’s business model and culture.
•India is one of the first countries in the world to make CSR mandatory for companies following an amendment to the Companies Act, 2013 (Companies Act) in 2014.
•Under the Companies Act, businesses can invest their profits in areas such as promoting rural development in terms of healthcare, sanitation, education including skill development, environmental sustainability, etc.
[Companies are required to spend, in every financial year, at least 2% of their average net profits generated during the 3 immediately preceding financial years]
•Provision for penalty in the form of fine on the company and officers in default, between Rs 50,000 – Rs 25,00,000, has been inserted in case of failure in compliance with Section 135
National Digital Health Blueprint
•In August this year, the government released NDHB which aims to create National Digital Health Eco- System
•It lays out the ‘building blocks’ for the implementation of the National Health Stack (NHS), which aims to deploy Artificial Intelligence (AI) in leveraging health records.
•Keeping true to the government’s larger agenda, of ‘data as a public good’, the blueprint proposes the linking of multiple databases to generate greater and granular data that can be leveraged by the public as well as private sector – including insurance companies, hospitals, apps and researchers.
Dirac metals View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•Researchers from IIT Bombay have discovered special properties in a class of materials called “semi-Dirac metals”- such materials would be transparent to light of a given frequency and polarisation when it is incident along a particular direction
•The quality of conduction in normal metals like gold and silver depends on the way energy depends on the momentum of electrons.
•Dirac metals differ from normal metals in that the energy depends linearly on the momentum. This difference is responsible for their unique properties.
•Semi-Dirac metals behave like Dirac metals in one direction and like normal metals in the perpendicular directions.
Edge computing
•According to a research, By 2025, View — uploads.disquscdn.com companies will generate and process more than 75% of their data outside of traditional centralised data centres — that is, at the “edge” of the cloud.
•Edge computing enables data to be analysed, processed, and transferred at the edge of a network. Meaning , the data is analysed locally, closer to where it is stored, in real-time without latency, rather than send it far away to a centralised data centre
•In Edge computing, massive amounts of data generated by IoT devices are stored and processed locally. That data doesn’t need to be sent over a network as soon as it processed; only important data is sent —
Strategic Partnership Council (SPC)
•Agreement for the Strategic Partnership Council (SPC) between India and Saudi Arabia has been signed.
•India will become the fourth country with which the Kingdom has formed a strategic partnership, the others being the UK, France and China.
SEED awards
•SEED was originally conceived as an acronym for Supporting Entrepreneurs for Environment and Development
•Fourteen start-ups selected for 2019 SEED Awards.
•The awards, an annual affair, are granted to organisations working on sustainable development.
The award highlights the contribution of green and social enterprises to advancing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
•It is a global partnership for action on sustainable development and the green economy.
[Founded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), UNDP and IUCN ]
Tipu Sultan
•He was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore.
•In the wider national narrative, Tipu has so far been seen as a man of imagination and courage, a brilliant military strategist who, in a short reign of 17 years, mounted the most serious challenge the Company faced in India
•Fought the first Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) at the age of 17 and subsequently, against the Marathas and in the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84).
 He fought Company forces four times during 1767-99 and was killed defending his capital Srirangapatnam in the Fourth Anglo Mysore War
•Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa has dropped hints that lessons on Tipu Sultan may be dropped from State syllabus textbooks, saying that the issue would be “reviewed.”
How a US President can be impeached?
•US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi recently announced that the House would launch an impeachment inquiry against President Donald Trump! [over his alleged efforts to pressure Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden, Trump’s potential rival in the 2020 elections]
•No US President has ever been removed as a direct result of impeachment
•The Senate has 53 Republicans, 45 Democrats and two independents who usually vote with the Democrats. Conviction of the President would require 67 votes, which cannot happen unless some Republicans vote against him
National Pension System (NPS);-{launched in 2004}
•It is a government-sponsored pension scheme which allows subscribers to contribute regularly in a pension account during their working life [in 2009, it was opened to all sections including NRI]
•The entire withdrawal will now be exempt from income tax
•Now, any Indian citizen, resident or non-resident and OCIs are eligible to join NPS till the age of 65 years.
International Solar Alliance;-
•ISA is an alliance of more than 122 countries initiated by India, most of them being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, now extended to all members of UN
•Paris Declaration establishes ISA as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries [aims to global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity by 2030]
•Palau has become 76th signatory country to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
•India is hosting the second Assembly of ISA. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is hosting the event
NIRVIK scheme
•Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) has introduced ‘NIRVIK’ scheme to ease the lending process and enhance loan availability for exporters.
•Insurance cover guaranteed will cover up to 90 percent of the principal and interest.
•It mandates inspection of bank documents and records by ECGC officials for losses exceeding Rs.10 crore as against the present Rs 1crore
•The banks shall pay a premium to ECGC monthly on the principal and interest as the cover is offered for both outstandings.
•It will enhance accessibility and affordability of credit for exporters.(It will help make Indian exports competitive.)
Air-independent propulsion
•It is any technology which allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without the need to access atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).
•It can augment or replace the diesel-electric propulsion system of non-nuclear vessels.
•It is based on the combustion of stored oxygen and ethanol to augment battery-powered propulsion
•AIP significantly improves stealth because it enables a submarine to generate electricity for services and battery charging and propulsion while completely submerged
Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA)
•The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978.
•The Act was introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”.
•The law allows the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
•Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates
•The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention “which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose”.
•Farooq Abdullah, Former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister, has been booked under the Public Safety Act (PSA).
•It is short for “malicious software,” also known as malicious code or “malcode.” [It is code or software that is specifically designed to damage, disrupt, steal, or in general inflict some other “bad” or illegitimate action on data, hosts, or networks.]
•Some of the more commonly known types of malware are viruses, worms, Trojans, bots, ransomware, backdoors, spyware, and adware.
Mekong river View — uploads.disquscdn.com
•The Mekong originates in Tibet and flows through China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam
Indian brain atlas:
• IIIT-Hyderabad creates the first Indian brain atlas. It is named as IBA100. Other brain atlases include Chinese, Korean and Caucasian.
•The first digital human brain atlas was created by the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI).
•The atlas reveals that Indian brain is smaller in height, width, and volume compared to the western and eastern populations
Cyclone Maha:( Oman)
•The depression over Arabian Sea has intensified into a cyclonic storm. It is named Maha. The name is given by Oman.
•This year, Maha will be the fourth Cyclone in Arabian Sea to form after Vayu, Hikaa, Kyaar

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