Quick Revision November Compilation 2019 ||resvisefast

Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan
•Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
•It aims to make beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of coastal ecosystems – in Beaches across 10 states / UTs.
•At end of the drive, the best three beaches will be suitably awarded along with a certificate of appreciation for all the participating eco-clubs.
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
•eighth session of (ITPGRFA) is being held in Rome, Italy.
•popularly known as the International Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use.
• It also recognises farmers’ rights, subject to national laws to:
a) the protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
b) the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits
c) the right to participate in making decisions etc.
•The Treaty helps maximize the use and breeding of all crops and promotes development and maintenance of diverse farming systems
Brown to Green Report 2019 : published by the Climate Transparency partnership, an international research collaboration.
•The report is the most comprehensive review of G20 countries’ climate performance, mapping achievements and drawbacks in their efforts to reduce emissions, adapt to climate impacts and green the financial system
•Carbon emissions from the world’s 20 biggest economies, including India, are rising.
•None of the G20 countries have plans that will help them achieve the target.
•Many of the current 2030 climate targets under the Paris Agreement (Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs) are too weak, with about half of the G20 countries projected to meet or overachieve their inadequate NDCs
•In the power, India is currently investing most in renewable energy, while Brazil and Germany are the only G20 countries with long-term renewable energy strategies
Dal Lake area to be eco-sensitive zone
•The Jammu and Kashmir UT will set up a 10-member committee that will declare Dal Lake, an Eco-sensitive Zone
•According to a report, the area of the Dal Lake has shrunk to 24 sq km from 31 sq km and the lake has witnessed significant changes in land use and cover, apart from increasing human population
•The Environment Protection Act, 1986 does not mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”.
The section 3(2)(v) of the Act, says that Central Government can restrict areas in which any industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards
•Also known as the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, dal lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the “Jewel in the crown of Kashmir” or “Srinagar’s Jewel”.
•Dal is a lake in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the ” Lake of Flowers”, “Jewel in the crown of Kashmir” or “Srinagar’s Jewel
Jal Jeevan Mission
•The Mission was announced in August 2019.
•The chief objective of the Mission is to provide piped water supply (Har Ghar Jal) to all rural and urban households by 2024.
•It also aims to create local infrastructure for rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household waste water for reuse in agriculture
India has 16% of the world population, but only 4% of freshwater resources. Depleting groundwater level, overexploitation and deteriorating water quality, climate change, etc. are major challenges to provide potable drinking water
•Jal Jeevan Mission will focus on integrated demand and supply management of water at the local level
New water policy
•The government has finalised a committee to draft a new National Water Policy (NWP
•The NWP currently in force was drafted in 2012 and is the third such policy since 1987.
•Among the major policy innovations in the 2012 policy was the concept of an Integrated Water Resources Management approach that took the “river basin/ sub-basin” as a unit for planning, development and management of water resources
•It also proposed that a portion of river flows ought to be kept aside to meet ecological needs
•The policy also stressed for a minimum quantity of potable water for essential health and hygiene to all its citizens to be made available within easy reach of households
NASA Unveils First Electric Plane X-57 “Maxwell” powered by 14 motors Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•NASA recently showcased an early version of its first all-electric experimental aircraft, the X-57 “Maxwell.”
•Adapted from an Italian-made Tecnam P2006T twin-engine propeller plane, the X-57 has been under development since 2015 and remains at least a year away from its first test flight in the skies over Edward Air Force Base.
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Gottiprolu:( in Andhra Pradesh) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Gottiprolu lies on the right bank of a distributary of river Swarnamukhi about eighty kilometers from Tirupati and Nellore.
•Excavation by Archaeological Survey of India in Gottiprolu, Andhra Pradesh indicate it as a Trade Centre of Early Historic Period.
•Among many other antiquities unearthed are one life size Vishnu sculpture and a wide variety of pottery of the early centuries of current era
•On the basis of the brick size and associated findings they can be placed anywhere between 2nd – 1st century BCE or little later (nearly 2000 years old)
Rashtriya Ekta Diwas: 31st October
•It marks the occasion of the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
•Sardar Patel is credited with uniting all 562 princely states in pre-independent India to build the Republic of India.
•In 1917– Elected as the Secretary of the Gujarat Sabha, the Gujarat wing of the Indian National Congress
•Supported the non-cooperation Movement launched by Gandhi and Patel toured the nation with him
•1931- Elected as the President of Indian National Congress in its Karachi sessionwhere the party deliberated its future path.
Jammu and Kashmir Bifurcation
• The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 comes into effect from 31st October 2019. [J&K has been divided into two Union Territories.]
•The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir and the Ranbir Penal Code will cease to exist.
•The Union Territory of J&K will have a legislature while the UT of Ladakh will have no legislature.
•The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister
•The High Court of Jammu and Kashmir shall be the common High Court for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union territory of Ladakh
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA);-
↪Is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students’ on reading, mathematics & science literacy in every 3 years.
↪India had taken part in PISA in 2009 & bagged 72nd rank among 74 participating countries.(then UPA government had boycotted PISA)
↪MoHRD officially decided to participate in PISA-2021(Is likely to be administered in schools in Chandigarh)
Lymphatic filariasis: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Also called as elephantiasis, it is Caused by infection with parasitic worms living in the lymphatic system.
•The larval stages of the parasite (microfilaria) circulate in the blood and are transmitted from person to person by mosquitoes.
•May Cause abnormal enlargement of body parts, and leading to severe disability and social stigmatization of those affected
•Lymphatic filariasis poses a grave threat to India.
•Over 40% of worldwide cases are found in India.
National Health Profile, 2019: released by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI)
•Covers comprehensive information on demographic, socio-economic health status, health finance indicators, health infrastructure and health of human resources in the country.
•To create a versatile database of health information and making it available to all stakeholders in the healthcare sector.
•Life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.7 years in 2012-16. [life expectancy for females is 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males]
•Diabetes and hypertension rate are high among Indians while dengue and chikungunya are a cause of great concern to public health
people per square kilometre was reported by the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) whereas Arunachal Pradesh reported the lowest population density of 17
•The birth rate in rural areas was higher than in the urban.
•The death rate and natural growth rate were also higher in rural areas as compared to the urban
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Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
•State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorized to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 29 Authorized Branches
CMIE report on joblessness
•India’s unemployment rate in October rose to 8.5%, the highest level since August 2016.
•Urban unemployment rate at 8.9%, is more than the rural unemployment rate of 8.3%.
•Highest unemployment rate in Tripura and Haryana, at more than 20%.
Lowest in Tamil Nadu at 1.1%
•CMIE findings are in line with the findings of the latest Periodic Labour Force Survey, which had estimated an unemployment rate of 6.1% between July 2017 and June 2018, the worst in 45 years
•Another research estimates that between 2011-12 and 2017-18, employment declined by an unprecedented nine million jobs (a 2% drop), with agricultural employment declining by 11.5%. In the same period, employment in the service sector increased by 13.4%, while manufacturing employment dipped by 5.7%.
Polavaram multi-purpose project;-
•It is a multi-purpose irrigation project , dam across river Godavari under construction for development of Irrigation, Hydropower & drinking water facilities to East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, West Godavari and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh.
•Polavaram project was accorded national status in 2014 in the Andhra Pradesh Bifurcation Act
Public health emergency declared in Delhi
Pollution levels and indicators:
An AQI between 0-50 is considered ‘good’, 51-100 ‘satisfactory’, 101-200 ‘moderate’, 201-300 ‘poor’, 301-400 ‘very poor’ and 401-500 ‘severe’. Above 500 falls in the ‘severe-plus emergency’ category.
▫️Measures announced under GRAP- Severe+ or Emergency
•Stop entry of trucks into Delhi (except essential commodities).
•Stop construction work.
•Introduce odd/even scheme for private vehicles and minimise exemptions.
•Task Force to decide any additional steps including shutting of schools etc.
•When the air quality shifts from poor to very poor, the measures listed have to be followed since the plan is incremental in nature
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA).
•In simple terms, AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
•They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law
•The Central Government, or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area
•Cabinet Secretariat has notified rules reasserting the Union Home Ministry as the authority that would decide on the imposition of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) in the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
•a suo-motto declaration can be made by the Central government, however, it is desirable that the state government should be consulted by the central government before making the declaration
WhatsApp hacking and Pegasus Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•WhatsApp has been used to spy on journalists and human rights activists in India earlier this year (before LS elections)
•The surveillance was carried out using a spyware tool called Pegasus, which has been developed by an Israeli firm, the NSO Group.
•It is a spyware that works by sending an exploit link, and if the target user clicks on the link, the malware or the code that allows the surveillance is installed on the user’s phone.
•Pegasus is installed without the user’s knowledge or permission.
•Once Pegasus is installed, the attacker has complete access to the target user’s phone.
•WhatsApp, which is owned by Facebook, is the world’s most popular messaging app, with more than 1.5 billion users worldwide. About a quarter of those users — more than 400 million, or 40 crore — are in India, WhatsApp’s biggest market.
Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO):
•SFIO comes under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).
•It is a multi-disciplinary organisation that investigates and guides prosecution in white-collar fraud requiring expertise in forensic auditing, corporate law, information technology, capital markets, taxation, and other allied fields.
•It was established in 2003, based on recommendations by the Naresh Chandra Committee on Corporate Audit and Governance.
•It received statutory powers under the Companies Act, 2013.
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All visitors to Meghalaya must first register
•Meghalaya has brought an ordinance that makes registration on entry mandatory for visitors who intend to spend more than 24 hours in the state
•An amendment to the Meghalaya Residents Safety and Security Act, 2016 has been passed to include this provision amid demands for an inner line permit (ILP) system to stop illegal immigration into the state.
•Meghalaya Residents Safety and Security Act (MRSSA) 2016 aims to ensure the security of the tenants as well as the safety and security of the citizens of the state.
•Inner Line Permit (ILP) is an official travel document required by Indian citizens residing outside certain “protected” states while entering them
•Currently, the Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.
East Asia Summit 2019 : (being held in Bangkok.) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 December 2005.
•There are six priority areas of regional cooperation within the framework of the EAS. These are – Environment and Energy, Education, Finance, Global Health Issues and Pandemic Diseases, Natural Disaster Management, and ASEAN Connectivity.
•It is considered the third pole of world economy after the US and Europe. Its four major economic players namely Japan, China, India and Korea are among the twelve largest ranking global economies.
•Financial and monetary cooperation between ASEAN+6 or EAS countries could be an area of fruitful cooperation in view of the fact that their combined foreign exchange reserves exceed $ 3 trillion
•EAS, representing nearly 50 per cent of the world’s population and over 20 per cent of global trade,is a mega gathering and is a testimony to the rise of Asia
SCOJTEX- 2019: (The latest edition is being held in India) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Shanghai Cooperation Organization Joint Exercise on Urban Earthquake Search & Rescue
•Hosted by NDRF.
Aim to rehearse the disaster response mechanism, share knowledge, experience, technology & also for mutual coordination, etc.
•The participants of all 08 member countries namely China, India, Kazakhastan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan shall be participating in this exercise.
•The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, also known as the Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai.
Global Microscope on Financial Inclusion report: released by Economist Intelligence Unit
•report features 11 new gender focussed indicators that measure financial inclusion for both women as well as men.
•India is among top nations with most conducive environment for financial inclusion in terms of allowing non-banks to issue e-money, proportionate customer due diligence and effective consumer protection.
•The Microscope report was first published in 2007 and was originally developed for countries in Latin American and Caribbean regions but in 2009 it was expanded into a global study.
•The report is a benchmarking index that assesses enabling environment for financial access in 55 countries across 5 categories.
Five parameters across which countries are assessed:
•Government and Policy Support.
•Products and Outlets.
•Stability and Integrity.
•Consumer Protection.
•Infrastructure.
‘Red Atlas Action Plan Map’ atlas and CFLOWS-Chennai
•It is a first of its kind ready reckoner map, prepared by Union Ministry of Earth Sciences to aid state government of Tamil Nadu in effective flood mitigation in Chennai which witnessed the worst deluge in 2015.
•The atlas is aimed at flood mitigation, preparedness, operations and management aspects
•Launched by NIOT.
•It is India’s first integrated coastal flood warning system.
•It is an integrated GIS-based decision support system to provide forecast on potential inundation 10 days in advance
National Waterway -2
•It is a section of the Brahmaputra River having a length of 891 km between the Bangladesh border near Dhubri and Sadiya in Assam
•First ever movement of container cargo on Brahmaputra (National Waterway -2) begins.
India and Bangladesh using the Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) routes
The traffic on NW-1 has grown from 5.48 million tonne in 2017-18 to 6.79 million tonne in 2018-19. Out of the total traffic of 6.79 million tonne on NW-1, approximately 3.15 million tonne is the EXIM trade between India and Bangladesh using the Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) routes.
•The IBP route extends from Kolkata (India) on NW-1 to Silghat (Assam) on NW-2 (River Brahmaputra) and Karimganj (Assam) on NW-16 (River Barak)
Fifth India International Science Festival is being held at Kolkata.
•Objective is to instill scientific temper among the masses, showcase India’s contribution in the field of S&T over the years and encourage translation of its benefits to people. It aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of Science and Technology.
•Theme: ‘RISEN India – Research, Innovation, and Science Empowering the Nation’
National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT):
•Established in November 1993 as an autonomous society under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
•NIOT has developed niche technologies to mine manganese nodules from deep sea, has developed several deep sea systems like remotely operable vehicles, etc. and is striving hard to bring India on par with developed Nations in the area of Ocean Technology.
•NIOT will be the nodal institution for implementing the proposed Deep Ocean Mission,
Dustlik 2019:[ India- Uzbekistan]
•It is the first-ever India-Uzbekistan Joint Exercise.
•Being held at Tashkent in Uzbekistan.
•The exercise will enable sharing of best practices and experiences between the Armed Forces of the two countries and would lead to greater operational effectiveness.
•The primary focus will be on counterterrorism.
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Skills Build Platform
•Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship launches Skills Build platform in Collaboration with IBM
•As part of the programme, a two-year advanced diploma in IT, networking and cloud computing, co-created and designed by IBM, will be offered at the Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs)
•Students will learn foundational knowledge about digital technologies, as well as professional skills such as resume-writing, problem solving and communication.
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP);-{b/w ASEAN+6}
~aims to boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff & non-tariff barriers — a move that is expected to provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates
•India has expressed its concerns over lowering and elimination of tariffs on products from other countries, as it would negatively affect the domestic agricultural and industrial sector.[it would make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exports]
•India’s trade deficit with the RCEP nations is $105 billion, of which China alone accounts for $54 billion.
•The worry is also over Chinese manufactured goods and dairy products from New Zealand flooding Indian markets, hurting domestic interests.
•Farmers fear that the RCEP will permanently bring down import duties on most agricultural commodities to zero which will lead to countries looking to dump their agricultural produce in India which would lead to a drastic drop in prices
Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS)
•India and Russia are finalising a defence agreement that will simplify interoperability and enable military platforms to receive support and supplies across bases in both nations
•This will be beneficial for the Indian Navy, which has a large number of Russian origin ships, that will get access to Russian ports for supplies and refueling. It would be crucial for joint exercises
[It is an arrangement that will allow access to India and Russia, to each other’s military facilities for supplies and fuel]
NBFC liquidity norms
•RBI’s guidelines are applicable to all non deposit-taking NBFCs with an asset size of ₹100 crore and above, systemically important Core Investment Companies and all deposit-taking NBFCs irrespective of their asset size.
•NBFCs are mandated to maintain liquidity coverage ratios (LCR). LCR will promote resilience of NBFCs to potential liquidity disruptions by ensuring that they have sufficient High Quality Liquid Assets (HQLA) to survive any acute liquidity stress scenario lasting for 30 days.
Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC)
•It is a regional system (consist of seven satellites) to provide position information in the Indian region & 1500 km around the Indian mainland
•Antrix, the commercial arm of ISRO has recently floated two separate tenders to identify industries that can develop dedicated NavIC-based hardware and systems.
•Having a global navigation system bolsters the ability of a nation to serve as a net security provider,[ It can also play a significant role in relief efforts post disasters such as the tsunami in the Indian Ocean region in 2004 and the Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005]
ICEDASH and ATITHI for improved customs clearance
•Has been launched for improved monitoring and pace of customs clearance of imported goods and facilitating arriving international passengers
ICEDASH : is an Ease of Doing Business monitoring dashboard of the Indian Customs helping the public see the daily Customs clearance times of import cargo at various ports and airports.
ATITHI app will facilitate hassle-free and faster clearance by Customs at the airports
Polypedates bengalensis: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•It is a newly discovered frog species from West Bengal.
•Also known as the Brown Blotched Bengal Tree Frog
•The frog’s body colour is yellowish-brown to greenish-brown
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Third battle of Panipat: [fought in 1761]
•Fought between Maratha forces and invading armies of Afghan general Ahmed Shah Abdali of Durrani Empire in 1761.
•Abdali was supported by two Indian allies—the Rohillas Najib-ud-daulah, Afghans of the Doab region and Shuja-ud-Daula-the Nawab of Awadh.
•The Marathas were defeated in the battle, with 40,000 of their troops killed, while Abdali’s army is estimated to have suffered around 20,000 casualties.
•It marked a loss of prestige for the Marathas, who lost their preeminent position in north India after this war, paving the way for British colonial power to expand here.
▫️The First Battle of Panipat, in 1526, laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India after its first ruler, Babur, ended the Delhi Sultanate
▫️The Second Battle of Panipat, in 1556, cemented Mughal rule when Akbar fought off a threat from the king Hemu ‘Vikramaditya’.
【The trailer for the upcoming Hindi film ‘Panipat’ (The title refers to the Third Battle of Panipat, fought in 1761.)】
China proposes to treat Alzheimer’s with new drug
▫️Alzheimer’s disease Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•It is a progressive brain disorder that typically affects people older than 65. When it affects younger individuals, it is considered early onset.
•The disease destroys brain cells and nerves, and disrupts the message-carrying neurotransmitters.
•Eventually, a person with Alzheimer’s loses the ability to perform day-to-day activities
•There is no cure for Alzheimer’s, because its exact causes are not known. Most drugs being developed try to slow down or stop the progression of the disease
[Alzheimer’s involves two proteins, called beta amyloids and tau]
•China recently announced that a new drug, meant to potentially treat Alzheimer’s disease, will be available to Chinese patients by the end of this year.
Called GV-971 or “Oligomannate”
Iran nuclear deal
•Iran is trying to increase the pressure on Britain, France and Germany in particular to find some arrangement that will allow them to sell the oil they were buying when Iran was not under sanctions
•Under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPoA) Tehran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons
▫️ Possibility in future
•Iran can make things difficult for the U.S. in Afghanistan as also in Iraq and Syria.
•The U.S.’s ability to work with Russia in Syria or with China regarding North Korea will also be impacted
•The impact on world oil prices will be the immediately visible impact of the U.S. decision. Iran is presently India’s third biggest supplier (after Iraq and Saudi Arabia), and any increase in prices will hit both inflation levels as well as the Indian rupee.
•It would impact the development of Chahbahar port.
US exiting the Paris Agreement
•United States initiated the process of leaving the Paris Agreement, notifying the United Nations of its withdrawal from the landmark climate deal.( The withdrawal will take effect one year from delivery of the notification)
•The withdrawal is not immediate, however. It takes effect one year after the submission of the notice. It means the United States will be out of Paris Agreement only on November 4 next year 【Means its good for world if Republic won’t come in power again 🙄!】
The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016 [adopted in December 2015]
•The pact seeks to keep global temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial levels, and to try and limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius
•While it is pulling out of the Paris Agreement, it remains part of the UNFCCC, the mother agreement that was finalised in 1994
India & RCEP
•India decided that it won’t sign the Regional Comprehensive Economic Participation agreement
•India was concerned that joining the RCEP trade pact could lead to Chinese goods flooding the Indian markets, and India’s trade deficit ballooning against most of the RCEP members
• India argued that,It would have led to several sectoral producers such as those in the dairy and steel sector being dominated by foreign competition
5th edition of Wasteland Atlas: ( released by Ministry of rural development)
•This is significant as it takes into account 08 MHa of unmapped area of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) for the first time
• Earlier editions 2000, 2005, 2010 & 2011
•Spatial extent of wastelands in India is 55.76 Mha (16.96 per cent of geographical area of the country
•India with 2.4 per cent of total land area of the world is supporting 18 per cent of the world’s population. [The per capita availability of agriculture land in India is 0.12 ha whereas world per capita agriculture land is 0.29 ha]
What is the Danakil Depression Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The Danakil Depression in northeastern Ethiopia is one of the world’s hottest places, as well as one of its lowest, at 100 metres below sea level
•A new study says that active and naturally occurring life cannot be sustained at Danakil
•All the water entering Danakil evaporates, and no streams flow out from its extreme environment. It is covered with more than 10 lakh tonnes of salt
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Office of Profit
•If an MLA or an MP holds a government office and receives benefits from it, then that office is termed as an “office of profit”.
•A person will be disqualified if he holds an office of profit under the central or state government
•MP or MLA can be disqualified for:
a) Holding an office of profit under government of India or state government;
b) Being of unsound mind;
c) Being an undischarged insolvent;
d) Not being an Indian citizen or for acquiring citizenship of another country
•【President Ram Nath Kovind has rejected a petition demanding disqualification of 11 Delhi MLAs belonging to Aam Aadmi Party for allegedly holding office of profit】
National Registry of Voluntary Organ Donors
•The Punjab and Haryana High Court has directed the Centre and the states of Punjab and Haryana, as well as the Union Territory of Chandigarh, to implement ‘The Transplant of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994’ in letter and spirit
•In May 2019, the PGIMER was asked to constitute a committee of doctors for deliberations over the subject, and to submit a report containing measures to promote cadaver donations
▫️Recommendations made by the committee:
•Create a National Registry of Donors, and a biometrics-based authentication of donors and recipients.
•A database of all surgeons and medical experts sanctioned for the transplantation should also be maintained etc.
•Committee has said there needs to be the involvement of certified NGOs and religious bodies to create positive awareness.
BIMSTEC
•In an effort to integrate the region & to promote strategic alignment among the member-states [the grouping was formed in 1997]
•BIMSTEC has 7 members [Bh-BIMST-Nepal]
° Bh–>Bhutan
° B –> Bangladesh
° I –> India
° M –> Myanmar
° S –> Sri Lanka
° T –> Thailand
° Nepal –> means Nepal
•First ever ‘BIMSTEC Ports’ Conclave will be held at Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
•The Conclave will explore the possibility of increasing economic cooperation by furthering EXIM trade and coastal shipping.
•The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world. Over one-fifth (22%) of the world’s population live in the seven countries around it, and they have a combined GDP close to $2.7 trillion [ How?, $ 2.9 trillion+ GDP belongs to india only!]
•The Bay also has vast untapped natural resources. One-fourth of the world’s traded goods cross the Bay every year.
Core Investment Companies (CICs)
•CICs are non-banking financial companies with asset size of ₹100 crore and above which carry on the business of acquisition of shares and securities, subject to certain conditions
•CICs having asset size of below Rs 100 crore are exempted from registration and regulation from the RBI, except if they wish to make overseas investments in the financial sector.
•The Reserve Bank has constituted a working group that will review the regulatory and supervisory framework for core investment companies
Alternative Investment Funds(AIFs);-
•Means any fund established or incorporated in india which is a privately pooled investment vehicle
•which collects funds from sophisticated investors,whether Indian or foreigners
•to invest largely in equity & equity-link instruments
•The Union Cabinet has approved the creation of an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) of Rs. 25,000 crore [~ $ 3.6 billion] to provide last-mile funding for stalled affordable and middle-income housing projects across the country.
•The Cabinet also approved the establishment of a ‘Special Window’ to provide priority debt financing for completion of stalled housing projects in the affordable and middle-income housing sector.
Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill
•The Bill, earlier named as the Gujarat Control of Organised Crime Bill, failed to get the presidential nod thrice since 2004. Now, Sixteen years after the first version of it was passed by the Gujarat Assembly, the Gujarat GCTOC has finally become law.
•The Bill provides for admissibility of evidence collected through interception of mobile calls of an accused or through confessions made before an investigating officer, in a court of law.
•Clause 16, which makes confessions before police officers admissible in court.
•The bill empowers police to tap telephonic conversations and submit them in court as evidence.
•It extends period of probe from stipulated 90 days to 180 days before filing of charge sheet.
【 Overall it gives more power of investigation to government and weak the Fundamental Rights of accused!】
Thiruvalluvar: [6th-century CE or earlier] Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher.
• He is best known as the author of Thirukkuṛaḷ, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economical matters, and love. The text is considered an exceptional and widely cherished work of the Tamil literature
•Recently, the Tamil Nadu BJP kicked up a controversy by tweeting a picture of the ancient Tamil saint Thiruvalluvar in a ‘Hindu’ style, replacing his usual white shawl with a saffron one, and adding Hindu symbols such as ‘vibhuti’ in the picture
Shaala Darpan portal:
•Human Resource Development ministry has launched Shaala Darpan portal.
•It is an E-Governance school automation and management system for Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS) in New Delhi.
It is an end to end e-Governance school automation and management system.
•It is a database management portal, where information about all government schools and education offices is kept online and updated as a continuous process.
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Steel scrap recycling policy
•In a bid to ensure quality scrap for the steel industry, the government has come out with a Steel Scrap Recycling Policy that aims to reduce imports, conserve resources and save energy
•The policy aims to promote circular economy in the steel sector”, besides promoting “a formal and scientific collection, dismantling and processing activities for end of life products
•It also aims to decongest the Indian cities from reuse of ferrous scrap, besides creating a mechanism for treating waste streams
Kalapani Territory Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Nepal government has strongly objected to the inclusion of ‘Kalapani’ under the Indian Territory as per the newly released political map of India
•Nepal government says that Kalapani is an integral part of the country and that talks are still on between New Delhi and Kathmandu over this “unresolved” area
•Kalapani is located at an altitude of 3600m on the Kailash Manasarovar route.
•It borders Uttarakhand in India and Sudurpashchim Pradesh in Nepal.
[Since the Indo-China war of 1962, Kalapani is controlled by India’s Indo-Tibetan Border Police.]
Quad countries
•The quadrilateral formation includes Japan, India, United States and Australia.
•All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.
•The idea was first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007. [However, the idea couldn’t move ahead with Australia pulling out of it.]
•It was revived in 2017 and is being viewed as response to increased Chinese economic and military power.
•All four countries share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific. Each is involved in development and economic projects as well as in promoting maritime domain awareness and maritime security
NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft
•NASA’s Voyager 2 has exited heliosphere and has entered interstellar space:)
[ It is now at 11 billion miles from the earth. ]
•Voyager 2 is the only probe ever to study Neptune and Uranus during planetary flybys.
•It is the second man-made object to leave our planet.
Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited all four gas giant planets — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — and discovered 16 moons, as well as phenomena like Neptune’s mysteriously transient Great Dark Spot, the cracks in Europa’s ice shell, and ring features at every planet.
•Scientists use the heliopause to mark where interstellar space begins
•Launched in the 1970’s, and the probes sent by NASA were only meant to explore the outer planets – but they just kept on going
“No Money For Terror” Conference
India will host the next edition of the ”No Money For Terror” conference to be held in 2020
•Recognising the importance of international cooperation in the fight against money laundering and financing of terrorism, a group of FIUs met a few years ago at the Egmont Arenberg Palace in Brussels, Belgium, and decided to establish an informal network of FIUs for the stimulation of international co-operation.
•The ability to prevent and detect money-laundering is a highly effective means of identifying criminals and terrorists and the underlying activity from which money is derived.
Kerala Fibre Optic Network Project
•The Kerala Cabinet has approved a Rs 1,548-crore fiber-optic network project.
[To be completed by December 2020]
•To provide free high-speed internet connection to around 2 million families in the state.
•Aims to provide free high-speed internet to over 20 lakh below poverty line (BPL) households.
•It is a collaborative initiative of the state’s power utility Kerala State Electricity Board and Kerala State IT Infrastructure Ltd.
•project seeks to fulfil the government’s aim of making internet access a ‘citizen’s right’.
SPG, NSG and other security forces — How India protects its VIPs
•The Union government is expected to take away the security cover by Special Protection Group (SPG) being provided at present to Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi. [They will, however, continue to get a Z+ security cover, where they will be provided commandos belonging to CRPF]
•In March 1985, following the recommendations of a committee set up by the Home Ministry, a special unit was created for this purpose under the Cabinet Secretariat. This unit, initially called the Special Protection Unit, was renamed as Special Protection Group in April 1985.
•The SPG Act defined “proximate security” as “protection provided from close quarters, during journey by road, rail, aircraft, watercraft or on foot or any other means of transport” and to “include the places of functions, engagements, residence or halt”
Tiger TRIUMP: ( i thought Trump!)
•It is a first tri- services amphibious exercise between India and the US.
[Conducted in Visakhapatnam and Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. ]
•The exercise will help both the countries to exchange knowledge and to establish professional and personal relationship.
Samudra Shakti:
•It is a bilateral maritime exercise between India and Indonesia.
•The latest edition is being held in Bay of Bengal.
•The joint exercises include, manoeuvres, surface warfare exercises, air defense exercises, weapon firing drills, helicopter operations and boarding operations.
Cyclone bulbul:
It is the seventh named storm of the unusually active 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season.
•Bulbul name was contributed by Pakistan
▫️The season has seen Cyclone Pabuk (South China Sea-Andaman Sea),
Cyclone Fani (Bay of Bengal)
Cyclone Vayu (Arabian Sea)
Cyclone Hikka (Arabian Sea)
Cyclone Kyarr (Arabian Sea)
Cyclone Maha (Arabian Sea)
________
Mapping lightning across India Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•For the first time, a report- Mid- Monsoon 2019 Lightning Report- has mapped lightning strikes across the country, and the lives they have claimed
•As per IMD, With 9 lakh lightning strikes between April 1 and July 31 this year, Odisha recorded the highest number of lightning strikes in the country, while Jammu and Kashmir recorded the least with about 20,000 strikes.
•Lightning strikes have caused at least 1,311 deaths in the four-month period between April and July this year
•It is possible to predict, 30-40 minutes in advance, when a lightning strike heads towards Earth.
•The base of these clouds typically lies within 1-2 km of the Earth’s surface, while their top is 12-13 km away.
•Temperatures towards the top of these clouds are in the range of minus 35 to minus 45 degrees Celsius.
•As water vapour moves upward in the cloud, the falling temperature causes it to condense. Heat is generated in the process, which pushes the molecules of water further up
•Collisions follow, and trigger the release of electrons — a process that is very similar to the generation of sparks of electricity. As the moving free electrons cause more collisions and more electrons, a chain reaction ensues.
Study moots lowering the age of consent
•new study calls for a need to distinguish between self-arranged marriages among older adolescents and forced child marriages to protect teens from social stigma, parental backlash and punitive action.
•Currently, the law prescribes that the minimum age of marriage is 21 and 18 years for men and women
•Women’s rights activists too have argued that the law perpetuates the stereotype that women are more mature than men of the same age and therefore can be allowed to marry sooner.[ I really don’t understand at the time of marriage female are more mature than male! (& what about when women doesn’t get job or get less credit than men even having equal ability 😔!)]
Ayodhya verdict Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Supreme Court put an end to the centuries-old Ayodhya Ram Janmbhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute case on November 9, by giving the disputed land to Ram Lalla
•The Hindus would get the entire disputed 2.77 acres in Ayodhya where the demolished Babri Masjid once stood.
•At the centre of the issue is the belief among sections of Hindus that the Babri Masjid, named after Mughal emperor Babur, was built in Ayodhya after destroying a Ram Temple that marked the birthplace of the deity.
•The Muslims will get alternate five acres of land either in the surplus 67 acres acquired in and around the disputed structure by the central government or any other “prominent” place
Harmonised System (HS) code for Khadi Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has allocated a separate Harmonised System (HS) code for Khadi.
•Khadi is India’s signature handspun and handwoven cloth that was made iconic by Mahatma Gandhi during the freedom struggle.
•The Harmonised System, or simply ‘HS’, is a six-digit identification code. Of the six digits, the first two denote the HS Chapter, the next two give the HS heading, and the last two give the HS subheading.
•Developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
`Called the “universal economic language” for goods.
•It is a multipurpose international product nomenclature.
Draft Social Security code
•The draft code on social security, which subsumes eight existing laws covering provident fund, maternity benefits and pension, is being further worked upon after a recent round of public consultations.
•Subject to the other provisions of this Code, every woman shall be entitled to, and her employer shall be liable for, the payment of maternity benefit at the rate of the average daily wage for the period of her actual absence
•The Code on Social Security, 2019 once in place will merge eight exiting labour laws includingEmployees’ Compensation Act, 1923; Employees‘ State Insurance Act, 1948, Employees‘ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952; Maternity Benefit Act, 1961; Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972; Cine Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1981; Building and Other Construction Workers Cess Act, 1996 and Unorganized Workers‘ Social Security Act, 2008.
Fall Armyworm (FAW) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•A native of the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas, FAW was first detected in the African continent in 2016. Since then, it has spread to other countries such as China, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
•It was reported in India for the first-time last year, when it affected crops in Karnataka. Within a span of only six months, almost 50 per cent of the country
•It is the polyphagous (ability to feed on different kinds of food) nature of the caterpillar and the ability of the adult moth to fly more than 100 km per night
Scientists call for action on climate
•More than 11,000 scientists have co-signed a letter in the journal BioScience, calling for urgently necessary action on climate.
•This is the largest number of scientists to explicitly support a publication calling for climate action. 【God, When politician would take climate change seriously?!】
•Globally, greenhouse gas emissions are still rising, with increasingly damaging effects. However, there’s more to climate change than global temperature.
•Scientists have developed a broader set of indicators to convey the effects of human activities on greenhouse gas emissions, and the consequent impacts on climate, our environment and society.
The indicators include human population growth, tree cover loss, fertility rates, fossil fuel subsidies, glacier thickness, and frequency of extreme weather events. All are linked to climate change.
【 Most easiest and toughest way to save our earth are ‘Reduce our meat consumption’ and aware people respectively】
Cyclones so far in the Indian Ocean:
•2019 may be the record-breaking cyclone year for India. We are already on a par with 2018 when a record of seven Cyclones was made.
•It will also be the second storm to form in the Bay of Bengal this year after extremely severe Cyclone Fani in April-May.
Previously there was Cyclone Maha formed in the Arabian Ocean
•The Arabian sea, usually not known to be prone to cyclones, has had four major cyclones this year — very severe cyclone Vayu, very severe cyclone Hikaa, super cyclone Kyarr and extremely severe cyclone Maha. and cyclone Pabuk in January 2019
【This equals the record for the highest number of severe cyclones in the Arabian sea in the last 117 years】
What is Pliosaur? Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•They are the largest aquatic carnivorous reptiles that have ever lived.
•They are often dubbed “sea monsters”. Scientifically, they are placed in the suborder
New Zealand- Zero Carbon Law:
•The country has passed Zero Carbon bill which aims to make New Zealand reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to the point the country becomes mostly carbon neutral by 2050.
•It gives some leeway to farmers, who bring in much of the country’s foreign income.
•The bill requires all greenhouse gases except methane from animals to be reduced to net zero by 2050.
Maternal mortality rate in India : released by Sample Registration System
•Maternal mortality ratio is measured as the number of maternal deaths per lakh live births.
•It varies among the Indian states from a high of 229 per lakh in Assam to a low of 42 in Kerala. [ Mutual Fund ka to pata ni but Kerala sahi hai!]
•Across the country, the maternal mortality ratio has declined from 130 during 2014-2016 to 122 during 2015-17.
•For Assam, which recorded the highest maternal mortality ratio, or MMR, the 229 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births is still an improvement from the 2014-16 MMR of 237. Uttar Pradesh (216), Madhya Pradesh (188), Rajasthan (186), Odisha (168), Bihar (165) and Chhattisgarh (141) follow.
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Maharashtra placed under President’s Rule
•President Ram Nath Kovind has approved a proclamation imposing President’s Rule in Maharashtra under Article 356(1) of the Constitution, following a recommendation from Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari.
•Article 356 of the Constitution of India gives President of India the power to suspend state government and impose President’s rule of any state in the country if “if he is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”
•While day to day operations of the state will not be affected, President’s rule would mean that for the next six months no major government decisions will be made. No projects will be sanctioned, and no major policy decisions including subsidies and others will be made
Pardoning powers of President
•The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has sent a letter to the Punjab government to commute the death sentence of Balwant Singh Rajoana, convicted for the assassination of former Chief Minister Beant Singh.
[The MHA took an “in principle” decision to commute the sentence as a “humanitarian gesture” ahead of the 550th birth anniversary celebrations of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism.]
article 72 :It says that the President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence.
•The President can grant pardon in all cases where the sentence given is sentence of death including punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial but Article 161 does not provide any such power to the Governor.( pardoning power of Governor does not extend to death sentence cases )
Chhattisgarh moots law to protect journalists
• draft bill has been prepared by a committee to safeguard media persons in Chhattisgarh from harassment, intimidation and violence
•It proposes that within 30 days of enactment of the law: “the government shall constitute a Committee for the Protection of Mediapersons to deal with complaints of harassment, intimidation or violence, or unfair prosecution and arrests of media persons”
•Among the major economies of the world belonging to the G-20 group, India has witnessed the fourth highest number of such killings related to journalistic work, behind Mexico (38), Russia (38), and Brazil (37).
FCRA and foreign funding
•The Ministry of Home Affairs has notified new rules for those receiving foreign funding
•Every member of an NGO must now, under oath, through an affidavit, certify that they have never been involved in “diverting” foreign funds or propagating “sedition” or “advocating violent means”. [Earlier, the applicant or director-level person was to given this declaration but now all members of the NGO need to be given this declaration.]
•The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 and rules framed under it (the “FCRA” or “Act”) regulate the receipt and usage of foreign contribution by non-governmental organisations (“NGOs”) in India
•Definition of foreign contribution:
It defines the term ‘foreign contribution’ to include currency, article other than gift for personal use and securities received from foreign source.
World Pneumonia(निमोनिया) Day: November 12
•(WHO) identifies pneumonia is the single largest cause of death in children worldwide.
•Every year, it kills an estimated 1.4 million children under the age of five years, accounting for 18% of all deaths of children under five years old worldwide
•Air sacs in an infected individual’s lungs (alveoli) become inflamed due to deposits of fluid and pus, making it painful and difficult for them to breathe.
•Children and the elderly above the age of 65 years are especially vulnerable.
Tiger triumph:
•It is a India-U.S. joint tri-services Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR).
•The maiden exercise is being held in India.
•The exercise is aimed at developing interoperability for conducting HADR operations.
Sri Lanka has criminalised match-fixing:
•In a first for a South Asian nation,Sri Lanka has criminalised several offences related to match-fixing, and decreed strict penalties.
•Match-fixing is a serious crime in a number of other cricketing nations, including England and Australia
World Congress on Rural and Agricultural Finance:
•The 6th World Congress is being held in New Delhi.
•It is co-hosted by NABARD and the Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA) and supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India.
•Theme: ‘Rural and Agricultural Finance: Critical Input to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Development’.
•It aims to bring member institutions and all interested development sector partners together to discuss the topics that define the future of the flow of finance to the rural and agricultural sector
Project Zero: Introduced by Amazon.
•To block selling of counterfeit goods on its platform.
•The aim is to ensure that customers receive authentic goods when shopping on Amazon
__________
Chief Justice of India’s office under RTI Act
•The Supreme Court has held that office of the Chief Justice of India is a public authority under the transparency law, the Right to Information Act.
[The landmark judgment was pronounced by five-judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi.]
•Previously, the Delhi High Court judgment which ruled that office of the Chief Justice comes under the purview of RTI
•However, Right to Privacy is an important aspect and has to be balanced with transparencywhile deciding to give out information from the office of the Chief Justice of India.
•Under the RTI Act, 2005, every public authority has to provide information to persons requesting for the information under the Act.
•Public Authority includes the body constituted by or under the Constitution. Article 124 of the Constitution deals with the establishment of the Supreme Court of India.
Green Climate Fund
•It was set up in 2010 under the UNFCCC’s financial mechanism to channel funding from developed countries to developing countries to allow them to mitigate climate change and also adapt to disruptions arising from a changing climate
•It is intended to be the centrepiece of efforts to raise Climate Finance of $100 billion a year by 2020.
•The Fund will promote the paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways by providing support to developing countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change
【In a move that may positively impact over 10 million people living on the coastline, India has kicked-off a USD 43 million project to boost climate resilience in three coastal states in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
[The project is funded by the Green Climate Fund.]】
Pamba-Achankovil-Vaippar river link project Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The river link proposal is listed among the river linking projects of the NWDA. It envisages diversion of 634 cubic millimeters of water from the Pamba and Achankovil rivers in Kerala to the Vaippar basin in Tamil Nadu.
•The interlinking project aims to link India’s rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals that will allow for their water capacities to be shared and redistributed
•Kerala is not allowing Pamba-Achankovil to be connected with the Vaippar river in Tamil Nadu under the inter-linking of rivers project. Kerala asserts that there is no excess water in rivers in the state
•There is a two way advantage with this – floods will be controlled and scarcity of water will be reduced.
BHIM UPI goes international
•BHIM app has gone international with a pilot demo of BHIM UPI QR- based payments beginning at the ongoing Singapore FinTech Festival 2019
•The project is being jointly developed by NPCI and NETS of Singapore. It is targeted to go live by Feb 2020.
•Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a UPI based payment interface.
•Developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI).
NPCI is an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India.
•It is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA)under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment and Settlement Infrastructure in India.
•It has been incorporated as a not for profit company.
Countdown on Health and Climate Change’ Report : Released by ‘The Lancet’
•The report is a comprehensive yearly analysis tracking progress across 41 key indicators, demonstrating what action to meet Paris Agreement targets — or business as usual — means for human health.
•The project is a collaboration between 120 experts from 35 institutions, including the World Health Organisation, the World Bank, University College London, and the Tsinghua University in Beijing.
•Climate change is already damaging the health of the world’s children and is set to shape the well-being of an entire generation, unless the world meets the target to limit warming to well below 2˚C
•If the world follows a business-as-usual pathway, with high carbon emissions and climate change continuing at the current rate, a child born today will face a world on average over 4˚C warmer by their 71st birthday, threatening their health at every stage of their lives
__________
SC Strikes Down Finance Act Rules for Appointments to Judicial Tribunals
•The Finance Act had given the Centre the power to govern appointments, removal and service conditions of the members of judicial tribunals like National Green Tribunal, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, National Company Law Appellate Tribunal
•The challenge to the Finance Act, 2017, was on the grounds that it was passed as a Money Bill.
•court said that the government should reframe the rules and ordered that until then, the existing laws will govern the tribunals
Sabarimala case
•Women b/w age of 10 to 50 could not traditionally enter Sabarimala temple as they were considered ‘impure’ by virtue of being of reproducting age & hence mensurating [[September 2018 verdict allowing entry of women of all age groups into the Sabarimala temple.]
•Sabarimala temple : is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala
•The Supreme Court has referred to a 7 judge- bench a clutch of review petitions challenging its September 2018 verdict allowing entry of women of all age groups into the Sabarimala temple.
•The entry prohibition takes away the woman’s right against discrimination guaranteed under Article 15(1) of the Constitution.
•It curtails her religious freedom assured by Article 25(1)
The supporters of Temple ban say that
•The restriction finds its source in the legend that the Sabarimala temple deity – Swami Ayyappa – is a ‘Naishtika Brahmachari’ – and should not be disturbed.
•In the Tantric system, the temple is not a prayer hall but an energy centre; the deity is not God who is omnipresent, but a source of energy (chaithanya) in a particular spiritual space etc.
Nadu Nedu programme: launched in Andhra Pradesh.
•The programme seeks to transform government schools into vibrant and competitive institutions
•Aims to transform all government schools with required infrastructure and up- gradation of skills besides setting up English labs.
•It also seeks to provide basic amenities such as clean water, furniture, compound wall, toilets etc.
•Teachers would be imparted training to effectively implement the decision to introduce English medium from Classes 1 to 6 in government schools from the next academic year.
•Today English is a global language, but our vernacular languages are where our thoughts form. At the same time, English is needed to reach out to people at a global level.
World Heritage Week: is celebrated by UNESCO between November 19, 2019 and November 25, 2019
•The Objective of celebrating World Heritage Week is to increase awareness among people about safety and preservation of cultural heritages and monuments.
•There are 38 World Heritage Sites located in India. These include 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed site. India has the sixth largest number of sites in the world.
•Each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state wherein the site is located and UNESCO considers it in the interest of the international community to preserve each site.
【Do you know, There are a total of 1092 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world (as of January 2019)】
Atal Tinkering Lab Marathon
•It is being organised by the Atal Tinkering Labs of Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and the NITI Aayog in an effort to identify India’s best student innovators.
•It is a six-month-long nationwide challenge across six different thematic areas, namely, clean energy, water resources, waste management, healthcare, smart mobility and agriculture-tech.
This is open to all students under the age of 18 years.
•Students of top 30 innovations will be trained on business and entrepreneurship skills, including intellectual property, effective communication, making an elevator pitch, etc.
•The objective of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity and imagination in young minds; and inculcate skills such as design mindset, computational thinking, adaptive learning, physical computing etc.
Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
•It was launched by PM Modi in September 2019 at the UN Secretary-General’s Climate Action Summit in New York, US.
•It will create a mechanism to assist countries to upgrade their capacities and practices, with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
•It is a platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure
•At the Leaders’ Dialogue with BRICS Business Council and New Development Bank (NDB), PM Modi requested the BRICS countries and the NDB to join the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure.
Shishu Suraksha” app: launched in Assam:
•“Shishu Suraksha”, the mobile application, is the brainchild of Assam State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (ASCPCR).
•The e-complaint box will enable users from all over the state to lodge complaints about the violation of child rights.
International Symposium on Lighting (iSoL):
•Organised by the International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT).
•It provides a common platform to professionals related directly or indirectly to the automotive lighting fraternity from all around the globe.
•iSoL-2019 is aimed at creating a knowledge sharing platform ensuring the flow of information.
Golden Leaf Award:
•The Golden Leaf Awards were created to recognize professional excellence and dedication in the tobacco industry by Tobacco Reporter, an international magazine in the year 2006.
•Awards are granted on an annual basis to companies that have achieved outstanding performance in five categories
1.Most impressive public service initiative
2.Most promising new product introduction
3.Most exciting newcomer to the industry
4.Most outstanding service to the industry
5.BMJ most committed to quality award
Tobacco Board Receives the 2019 Golden Leaf Award.
Category: ‘Most Impressive Public Service Initiative’.
________
Contempt of Courts under the Indian law
•Contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court.
• The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt. Civil contempt refers to the wilful disobedience of an order of any court. Criminal contempt includes any act or publication which: (i) ‘scandalises’ the court, or (ii) prejudices any judicial proceeding, or (iii) interferes with the administration of justice in any other manner
•The Supreme Court has held former Ranbaxy promoters Malvinder and Shivinder Singh guilty of contempt for violating its order that had asked them not to divest their shares in Fortis Healthcare Limited.
Rules notified to bring financial firms under IBC
•The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified the Insolvency and Bankruptcy (Insolvency and Liquidation Proceedings of Financial Service Providers and Application to Adjudicating Authority) Rules, 2019.
•These rules aim to provide a generic framework for insolvency and liquidation proceedings of systemically important FSPs other than banks.
•As per the new rules, only a regulator will be allowed to refer a non-bank lender or housing financier to a bankruptcy tribunal, unlike in the case of companies that can approach a tribunal on their own, or can be dragged into one either by lenders or operational creditors such as material suppliers.
Regulation on cooperative banks soon
•The government will, in the upcoming Winter Session of Parliament, seek to make amendments in certain laws so as to bring the banking activities carried out by cooperative societies under the purview of the Banking Regulation Act.
•The government is also planning to increase the amount of deposits in banks that are insured, from the current ₹1 lakh.
•Co-operative banks are financial entities established on a co-operative basis and belonging to their members. This means that the customers of a co-operative bank are also its owners.[ like PMC Bank]
Rajasthan’s free medicine scheme ranked first
•Rajasthan Mukhyamantri Nishulk Dava Yojana was launched on 2nd October 2011.
It has 2 components:
1.Free Medicines: To provide commonly-used essential medicines free of cost to patients visiting government healthcare institutions (introduced on 2nd October 2011), and
2.Free Tests: To provide free tests (introduced on 7th April 2013).
•Scheme has once again secured the first rank from the National Health Mission.
[The State registered 94.59% of online free medicine distribution at counters in public health facilities and 84.76% use of the drugs and vaccine distribution management system at primary health centres.]
National Mission ‘NISHTHA’ launched in J&K
•It is a Mission aimed at improving learning outcomes at Elementary level through integrated Teacher Trainings.
•This Mission aims to build the capacities of 42 lakh participants covering all teachers and Heads of Schools at elementary level in all Government Schools across the country, faculty members of SIEs/SCERTs, DIETs etc
•NISHTHA- National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA)
Essar Steel verdict Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•In a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court has upheld the supremacy of the Committee of Creditors comprising the financial creditors of the bankrupt firms over the distribution of claims.
•A Creditor means any person to whom a debt is owed and includes a financial creditor, an operational creditor, a secured creditor, an unsecured creditor and a decree holder.
•Essar Steel owes about Rs 49,000 crore to dozen banks. State Bank of India has among the highest exposure, with over Rs 15,000 crore. Others include ICICI Bank, IDBI Bank and Syndicate Bank.
•Overall, industry executives point out that Essar Steel has among the highest realization for an insolvency case, which usually averages around 53 percent. In the case of Essar Steel, the lenders will realise 85 percent of their exposure
Chile to hold referendum on new Constitution:
•Chile has announced that it will stage a referendum to replace the country’s Constitution.
• The current charter, in force since 1980 and enacted by the military dictatorship, does not establish the State’s responsibility to provide education and healthcare — two demands made by millions of Chileans who have taken to the streets.
Online Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation (OCSAE) Prevention/Investigation Unit: Set up by Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
•The unit, which will function under the agency’s Special Crime Zone in Delhi, will collect and disseminate information on online child sexual abuse and exploitation
European Investment Bank to stop fossil fuel funding:
The European Investment Bank is to stop funding oil and coal projects at the end of 2021.
•The EIB’s new policy demands that the energy projects applying for funding must prove that they can produce 1 Kilo watt hour of energy emitting less than 250 grams of carbon dioxide.[ not applicable to gas-based energy projects. ]
NASA renames Ultima Thule to ‘Arrokoth’:
•National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently renamed farthest cosmic body, earlier known as ‘Ultima Thule’ to ‘Arrokoth’ or Sky.
The old name attracted controversy because the word ‘Thule’has been associated with Nazis in the past.
•Located in the Kuiper belt in the outermost regions of the Solar system.
•Measures approximately 30 km in diameter, and is irregularly shaped.
•It has a reddish color, probably caused by exposure of hydrocarbons to sunlight over billions of years.
Sisseri River Bridge: inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh.
•Recently, the Defence Minister inaugurated the Sisseri River Bridgelocated at lower Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
•The 200m long bridge provides connectivity between Dibang Valley and Siang.
_________
Lala Lajpat Rai ( 28 JAN1865 –17 November 1928)
•He is well known as Indian writer and politician, outspoken in his advocacy of a militant anti-British nationalism in the Indian National Congress (Congress Party) and as a leader of the Hindu supremacy movement.
•After studying law at the Government College in Lahore, Lajpat Rai practiced at Hissar and Lahore, where he helped to establish the nationalistic Dayananda Anglo-Vedic School and became a follower of Dayananda Sarasvati, the founder of the conservative Hindu society Arya Samaj (“Society of Aryans”)
•Rai, Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal (called Lal-Bal-Pal) fervently advocated the use of Swadeshi goods and mass agitation in the aftermath of the controversial Partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon.
•He founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York City in 1917.
He was elected President of the Indian National Congress during its Special Session in Kolkata in 1920, which saw the launch of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement.
President of Sri Lanka- Election process Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Sri Lanka’s government operates under a semi-presidential system, where the president holds widespread executive authority but governs in partnership with a prime minister they appoint and a cabinet recommended by the prime minister.
•If no candidate wins a majority(50%+) in the first round of voting, second and third preferences from ballots whose first preference candidate has been eliminated are used to determine the winner.
• Parliament of Sri Lanka has 225 seats, 196 seats filled by direct elected MP .The remaining 29 “national” seats are distributed to political parties in proportion to their overall share of the votes(proportional representation)received in the election.
【 I liked the way of nomination in Sri Lanka’s Parliament:)】 Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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Citizenship (Amendment) Bill
•It seeks to allow illegal migrants from certain minority communities in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan eligible for Indian citizenship by amending the Citizenship Act of 1955.
•It seeks to grant citizenship to people from minority communities — Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians —after 6 years of stay in India even if they do not possess any proper document. (The current requirement is 12 years of stay.)
•The Bill, however, does not extend to illegal Muslim migrants
•The Bill makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship on the basis of religion. This may violate Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees the right to equality
Social Awareness and Action to Neutralise Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS)
•The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has launched a campaign in Gujarat named ‘SAANS’
•Aims to reduce child mortality due to pneumonia, which contributes to around 15% of deaths of children under the age of five annually.
•To mobilise people to protect children from pneumonia, and train health personnel and other stakeholders to provide prioritised treatment to control the disease etc.
•child suffering from pneumonia will be treated with a pre-referral dose of antibiotic amoxicillinby Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) workers
India’s free trade agreements with ASEAN
•report, analysing the benefits of India’s free trade agreements with ASEAN [prepared by the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry]
•Overall, India failed to benefit from free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).
•In fact, India’s trade deficit had increased ever since the country entered into FTAs with ASEAN.
•India’s net exports to countries without a trade agreement were only marginally lower than its net exports to countries with FTAs.
ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus)
•The ADMM-Plus is a platform for ASEAN and its eight Dialogue Partners to strengthen security and defence cooperation for peace, stability, and development in the region.
•Agreed five areas of practical cooperation under this new mechanism, namely maritime security, counter-terrorism, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, peacekeeping operations and military medicine.
[In 2013, a new priority area of humanitarian mine action was agreed]
Objectives:
•To benefit ASEAN member countries in building capacity to address shared security challenges, while cognisant of the differing capacities of various ASEAN countries.
•To promote mutual trust and confidence between defence establishments through greater dialogue and transparency.
Germany’s Climate Protection Act
•The German parliament has passed the Climate Protection Act in an attempt to reach its climate target by 2030.
•This will be Germany’s first climate action law.【Germany is showing bit maturity atleast in 21st century😁:)】
•With this bill, a price on carbon emissions in the transport and heating sectors will be imposed along with some other measures to combat climate change.
•The bill consists of emissions targets for different sectors of the economy such as transport, energy and housing
Water Quality Report
•The report is in line with the Jal Jeevan Mission that was launched to provide clean and safe drinking water to all by 2024.
•In order to ensure that clean and safe drinking water is provided to all, Department of Consumer Affairs decided to undertake a study through the Bureau of India Standards (BIS) on the quality of piped drinking water being supplied in the country and also rank the States, Smart Cities and even Districts based on the quality of tap water.
•In Delhi, all the samples drawn from various places did not comply with the requirements of the Indian Standard& failed on several parameters.
•All the 10 samples drawn from Mumbai were found to comply with the requirements.
Indian Oil develops winter grade diesel for Ladakh:
•Indian Oil Corporation has developed winter-grade diesel for Ladakh to address the problem of loss of fluidity in fuel during extreme winter conditions.
•Significance: The new fuel has a pour point of – 33°C and does not lose its fluidity function even in the extreme winter weather of the region unlike the normal grade of diesel which becomes exceedingly difficult to utilise.
________
250th session of Rajya Sabha
•On the occasion of its 250th session, Rajya Sabha MPs have made the following suggestions:
1.Giving all States, irrespective of their population and size, an equal number of seats in the Rajya Sabha.
2.All members, irrespective of their parties’ strength in the House, the same amount of time to speak in debates
•The Upper House of the Indian Parliament traces its direct history to the first bicameral legislature introduced in British India in 1919 as a consequence of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
•Unlike the US Senate which ensures equal representation for all federal units (each state having two representatives(50×2=100), India’s Rajya Sabha does have more members from populous states.
Gram Sabha
•The term Gram Sabha is defined in the Constitution of India under Article 243(b).
•Gram Sabha is the primary body of the Panchayati Raj system and by far the largest.
•It is a permanent body
•Persons, those who are above 18 years of age. (Living in the village ).Whose names are included in the electoral rolls for the Panchayat at the village level.
•Constitution mentions that Gram Sabha exercises such powers and performs such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.
•The Haryana Cabinet has taken an in-principle decision to bring an amendment in Section 31 of the Haryana Panchayati Raj Act, 1994, allowing devolution of powers to the Gram Sabha to ban liquor within the local area of a Gram Panchayat
Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
•It is a maternity benefit rechristened from erstwhile Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY).[ IGMSY was launched in 2010.]
•The scheme is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women.
•It provides a partial wage compensation to women for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare and to provide conditions for safe delivery and good nutrition and feeding practices.
•They receive a cash benefit of Rs. 5,000 in three instalments on fulfilling the respective conditionality
•As per a survey, the PMMVY has been able to reach less than a third of the eligible beneficiaries.
•The scheme has failed to reach at least 49% of all mothers who would have delivered their first child (an estimated total of 123 lakh for 2017 according to the researchers).
Only 66% of pregnant women and 69% of nursing women knew about the scheme. Only 8% of pregnant women and 23% of nursing mothers received some benefits
Among women who had delivered a baby in the preceding six months, only 31% said that they had eaten more nutritious food than usual during their pregnancy🙄!!
Kimberley Process;-
•It is an international certification scheme that regulates trade in rough diamonds(in reducing the flow of conflict diamonds)
•rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ – around the world.
•KP members account for approximately 99.8% of the global production of rough diamonds
•“Conflict Diamonds” means rough diamonds used by rebel movements or their allies to finance conflict aimed at undermining legitimate governments. It is also described in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions.
•India is a founding member
•The Plenary meeting of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is being hosted by India.
•India is the present Kimberley Process (KP) Chair. The plenary is being hosted in New Delhi in November 2019.
IMD World Talent Ranking- 2019
•It is released by the International Institute for Management Development (IMD). IMD is a business education school based in Switzerland.
•The ranking is based on the performance in three main categories — investment and development, appeal and readiness.
•The top of the table is still led by European small and mid-size economies. These countries all share high levels of investments in education and a superior quality of life.
[Switzerland in the first and Denmark in the second position]
India has slipped 6 places to 59 rank.☹️!
•This is due to low quality of life and expenditure on education.
•India is also lagging behind fellow BRICs countries – China ranked 42nd on the list, Russia (47th) and South Africa (50th).
•India also witnessed one of the sharpest declines among Asian economies owing to low quality of life, negative impact of brain drain, and the low priority of its economy on attracting and retaining talents
What is space internet:( any extraordinary activity in space technology= Elon Musk:)
•SpaceX, the world’s leading private company in space technology, has launched 60 satellites into the low earth orbit, under the Starlink network project
•Under the project, the company intends to evolve into a constellation of nearly 12,000 satellites.
•The aim is to provide low-cost and reliable space-based Internet services to the world.
•The project announced in 2015, has now 122 satellites in the orbit
•Currently, about 4 billion people, more than half the world’s population, do not have access to reliable Internet networks.
•That is because the traditional ways to deliver the Internet — fibre-optic cables or wireless networks — cannot take it everywhere on Earth.
•A geostationary orbit, also referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 miles) above Earth’s equator and following the direction of Earth’s rotation.
•Advantages: Signals from geostationary orbit can cover a very large part of the Earth
•Satellites in this orbit move at speeds of about 11,000 km per hour, and complete one revolution of the Earth in the same time that the earth rotates once on its axis. [Because of that using low earth orbit instead of geostationary]
Then what’s the issue
•There is a time lag — called latency — between a user seeking data, and the server sending that data.
•And because data transfers cannot happen faster than the speed of light (in reality, they take place at significantly lower speeds), the longer the distance that needs to be covered the greater is the time lag, or latency.
[A transmission from a satellite in geostationary orbit has a latency of about 600 milliseconds.]
•A satellite in the lower orbit, 200-2,000 km from the Earth’s surface, can bring the lag down to 20-30 milliseconds, roughly the time it takes for terrestrial systems to transfer data.
Za’ir-Al-Bahr (the Roar of the Sea):[India -Qatar]
•It is the Joint Exercise between the Qatari Emiri Navy and the Indian Navy, Za’ir-Al-Bahr (the Roar of the Sea).
The latest edition is being held in Doha.
•Aim: To strengthen cooperation and enhance interoperability between the two navies.
Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS):
•Launched by Ministry of Sports within the ambit of National Sports Development Fund (NSDF).
•It aims at identifying and supporting potential medal prospects for upcoming Olympic Games.
•It will provide selected sportspersons customized training at institutes having world class facilities and also other necessary support is being provided to the elite athletes.
•Sports Authority of India (SAI) and federations, which are members of Mission Olympic Cell (MOC), will be nodal agencies for disbursal for fund
________
National Register of Citizens (NRC)
•It address the issue of illegal migrants in Assam, specifically from Bangladesh
•Who is a citizen in Assam??????
~all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens
~Those who came b/w JAN 1,1966 & March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship(after living 10 years)
•HM Amit Shah has said that India shall soon introduce a nationwide National Register of Citizens (NRC).
•Presumably, the Centre will come out with a cut-off for the nationwide NRC, but it will be an arbitrary one.
Recycling of Ships Bill, 2019
•The Union Cabinet has approved the proposal for enactment of Recycling of Ships Bill, 2019 and accession to the Hong Kong International Convention for Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009.
•It restricts and prohibits the use or installation of hazardous material, which applies irrespective of whether a ship is meant for recycling or not.
•For new ships, such restriction or prohibition on use of hazardous material will be immediate, that is, from the date the legislation comes into force, while existing ships shall have a period of five years for compliance.
•The Convention is yet to come into force because it has not been ratified by 15 nations, representing 40 per cent of the world merchant shipping by gross tonnage (capacity) and a maximum annual ship recycling volume of not less than 3 per cent of the combined tonnage of the countries
•India is the leader in the global ship recycling industry, with a share of over 30% of the market.
[The ship-recycling industry is a labour-intensive sector, but it is susceptible to concerns on environmental safety. ]
Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•The bill aims to address various deficiencies in the management of the National Memorial and to ensure that the Trust is an apolitical entity.
•Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act, 1951 provided for the erection of a National Memorial in memory of those killed or wounded on April 13, 1919, in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
•The 1951 Act also provided for a Trust to manage the National Memorial.
•The Trust as per the 1951 Act included the (i)Prime Minister, as Chairperson, (ii) the President of the Indian National Congress, (iii) the Minister in-charge of Culture, (iv) the Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, (v) the Governor of Punjab, (vi) the Chief Minister of Punjab, and (vii) three eminent persons nominated by the central government
The 2019 amendment bill removes the President of the Indian National Congress as a Trustee.
•It clarifies that Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha or the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha will be the Trustee
Labour Code on Industrial Relations 2019
•The Union cabinet has approved the Labour Code on Industrial Relations 2019.
The code will combine Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Trade Unions Act, 1926, and the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946.
•It seeks to allow companies to hire workers on fixed-term contract of any duration.
•The code has retained the threshold on the worker count at 100 for prior government approval before retrenchment, but it has a provision for changing ‘such number of employees’ through notification.
•While this means workers can be hired seasonally for six months or a year it also means that all workers will be treated at par with regular workers for benefits.
New Code on Wages
•The Centre will soon notify the rules that will create the mechanisms to fix a floor wage that would then undergird the minimum wages for different categories of workers — unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and highly skilled— that the States and Central government would have to set and enforce.
•The new code will amalgamate the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
•The Code will apply to all employees. The central government will make wage-related decisions for employments such as railways, mines, and oil fields, among others. State governments will make decisions for all other employments.
•The minimum wages decided by the central or state governments must be higher than the floor wage
•One argument for a national minimum wage is to ensure a uniform standard of living across the country. At present, there are differences in minimum wages across states and regions
Smart Safety Surveillance, or 3S, programme
•The 3S project was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), considering the limited safety data on vaccines introduced in India.
•As part of the 3S project, India is evaluating the recently-introduced rotavirus vaccines.
•It is also trying to strengthen the collaboration among key stakeholders, such as ministry of health and Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO), to ensure high levels of vigilance
•WHO has been prodding countries to adopt the 3S programme, with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, to strengthen pharmacovigilance systems in developing nations.
•This is being done to optimize post-marketing surveillance of priority drugs and vaccines, and ensure the vaccines distributed under the universal immunization programme are safe.
Patent Prosecution Highway programme
•The Union Cabinet has approved the proposal for adoption of Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) programme by the Indian Patent Office (IPO)
•The Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) is a set of initiatives for providing accelerated patent prosecution procedures by sharing information between some patent offices.
•This would allow a patent applicant to demand fast-tracking of his patent application by showing that his product or process has already been granted a patent in Japan.
Indian Performing Right Society (IPRS):
•It is a representative body of artists, including music owners, composers, lyricists, and publishers of music.
•It collects royalties due to the artists if their work is used anywhere from a wedding to a New Year function or on radio or TV — in other words, wherever music is played.
•Set up in 1969, and re-registered as a copyright society in 2017, following which it started functioning actively
 2012 amendment in The Copyright Act, 1957 laid down that artists would get 50% of royalties every time their work was used, even if the copyright remained with the production house or the music brand.
species of wasp has been named Idris Elba. Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The wasp, recently discovered in Mexico, was found living as a parasite in the eggs of another insect, known as the bagrada bug, which is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables.
•This newly discovered wasp species could be the ultimate weapon in the battle against the stink bug — also known as the painted bug — by “parasitizing” stink bug eggs and thus preventing offspring from growing.
MK-45 naval guns: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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• The United States of America has approved the sale of thirteen MK-45 naval guns and related equipment to India.
[13 MK 45 naval guns and related equipment worth an estimated cost of $1.0210 billion.]
•The MK 45 is a naval artillery gun designed for use against surface warships, anti-aircraft and shore bombardment to support amphibious operations.
•It has a range of more than 20 nautical miles or 36 km
National Institute of Sowa-Rigpa (NISR):
•The Union Cabinet has approved setting up of National Institute of Sowa-Rigpa (NISR) at Leh, Union Territory of Ladakh.
•It will be an autonomous national institute under the Ministry of AYUSH with the mandate to undertake interdisciplinary education and research programmes in Sowa-Rigpa in collaboration with national and international institutes.
What is Sowa -Rigpa?
•It is a traditional system of medicine practised in the Himalayan belt of India.
•It originated in Tibet and popularly practiced in countries namely, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, and Russia.
•The majority of theory and practice of Sowa-Rigpa is similar to “Ayurveda”.
________
MLA’s citizenship revoked for hiding foreign visits
•The home ministry has revoked the citizenship of Telangana MLA Ramesh Chennamaneni on the ground of misrepresentation of facts at the time of applying for citizenship in 2008.
•Ramesh, who had been living in Germany since 1993, applied for Indian citizenship on March 31, 2008 and was granted the same on February 4, 2009.
•When the MLA applied for Indian Citizenship, he was holding Germany’s citizenship and never stayed in India for more than 12 months as required for a foreign national in the Foreigners Act.
According to Section 5(1)(f) of Citizenship Act of 1955 “the Central Government may, on an application made in this behalf, register as a citizen of India any person if a person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration.”
K12 Education Transformation Framework
•The Framework provides a holistic framework to facilitate a comprehensive digital transformation of schools.
•The framework is a flexible platform based on the latest research and input from hundreds of academics, experts, and policymakers.
•It comprises four pillars — leadership and policy, modern teaching and learning, intelligent environments and technology blueprint.
•Education leaders in more than 50 countries have already adopted the Microsoft K-12 Education Transformation Framework to help plan their learning strategies in partnership with Microsoft.
[Microsoft rolls out its K12 Education Transformation Framework more widely in India]
Arundhati Swarna Yojana: Launched by ‘Assam government’
•Under the scheme, the state government will offer 10 grams of gold as a gift to every adult bride who has completed at least 10th standard and has registered her marriage.
Note: The government will not give the gold directly but Rs. 30,000 to purchase 10 gms of gold.
•The annual income of the bride’s family must be less than five lakh rupees to avail the scheme.
•Minimum age should be 18 years and 21 years for the bride and bridegroom respectively
Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0
•The ultimate goal of Mission Indradhanush is to ensure full immunization with all available vaccines for children up to two years of age and pregnant women.
•IMI 2.0 will include four rounds of vaccination, with each round involving a seven-day immunisation drive to be conducted each month from December 2 onwards.
•The IMI programme is supported by 12 ministries and departments and is being monitored by the cabinet secretary at the national level
•The current national full immunisation coverage rate stands at 87 per cent. According to government data, 260 lakh children are born every year
Avian Botulism
•It is a strain of botulism that affects wild and captive bird populations, most notably waterfowl
•Avian botulism is said to be the reason behind the deaths of 18,000 birds in and around Rajasthan’s Sambhar lake
•Fluctuated throughout the year. Due to a good monsoon this year, the water level reached the lake bed after a gap of 20 years.
•The good monsoon provided a favorable environment for the bacteria to spread. The bacteria needs anaerobic (absence of oxygen) conditions and does not grow in acidic conditions.
•A fresh document should study why the water from four rivers, which flows into the lake, has decreased over the years. It should study the hydrology, sedimentation, the increase or decrease in depth of the lake, as well as birds, animals, their food sources, etc.
Budapest Convention on cyber security
•UN committee has passed a Russian-led resolution on a global cybercrime treaty, despite reservations that it could be used to justify shutting down civil society in repressive countries.
•The resolution was sponsored by China, North Korea, Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Syria, among others, and will up an “Open Ended Working Group” to examine cybercrime
•It is the first international treaty seeking to address Internet and computer crime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations.
•India did not participate in the negotiation of the Convention and thus is worried about it
Why India should join?
•The challenges currently being addressed by the parties to the Convention through the Cybercrime Convention Committee are highly relevant also for India [As the Convention evolves, India would be able to contribute to shaping future solutions if it were a party]
Prithvi-II missile:
•It is a surface-to-surface tactical missile with a strike range of 350 km.
•It is India’s first missile indigenously developed by DRDO under prestigious Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
•It is capable of carrying 500 to 1,000 kg of warheads, both conventional as well as nuclear.
•The state-of-the-art missile is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines.
●Bacteriophages:
•They are the viruses that can kill the bacteria.
•They are comprised of a protein capsule around an RNA or DNA genome.
•They are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist.
•They are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria.
_______
Private member’s Bill
•Any MP who is not a Minister is referred to as a private member.[bill introduce by them is called private member’s bill]
•28 private member’s Bills introduced in Lok Sabha.
•The admissibility is decided by the Chairman for Rajya Sabha and Speaker in the case of Lok Sabha.
•While government Bills can be introduced and discussed on any day, private member’s Bills can be introduced and discussed only on Fridays 【Today is Saturday (:
GST Council
•The GST council is the key decision-making body that will take all important decisions regarding the GST.
•The GST Council dictates tax rate, tax exemption, the due date of forms, tax laws, and tax deadlines, keeping in mind special rates and provisions for some states.
•The predominant responsibility of the GST Council is to ensure to have one uniform tax rate for goods and services across the nation.
•According to the article 279A, GST Council will be a joint forum for the Centre and the States. It consists of the following members:
°The Union Finance Minister will be the Chairperson
°As a member, the Union Minister of State will be in charge of Revenue of Finance
°The Minister in charge of finance or taxation or any other Minister nominated by each State government, as members.
One Stop Centre Scheme
•Scheme popularly known as Sakhi, Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has formulated this Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
•Under the scheme, One Stop Centres are being established across the country to provide integrated support and assistance under one roof to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces in phased manner.
•The OSC Scheme will support all women including girls below 18 years of ageaffected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status.
India to be a $5 trillion economy
•The road to a $5 trillion economy by 2025 is beset with many speed-breakers, the NITI Aayog has warned the government.
•In 2014, India’s GDP was $1.85 trillion. Today it is ~$2.9 trillion and India is the sixth-largest economy in the world
•If India grows at 12% nominal growth (that is 8% real GDP growth and 4% inflation), then from the 2018 level of $2.7 trillion, India would reach the 5.33 trillion mark in 2024. India must keep growing at a rapid pace to attain this target.
Reverse osmosis (RO): [Kent wala RO]
•In May, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) asked MoEF to frame rules for the use of RO filters and also banned the use of RO purifiers in locations where TDS was low.
•According to NGT, RO purifiers lead to the wastage of almost 70-80 percent water during the purification process.
•The Supreme Court has refused to stay the May 2019 order of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) that banned the use of reverse osmosis (RO) systems where drinking water supply had total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 500 mg per litre
•There are concerns that desalinated the RO water may be short of vital minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, sodium, potassium and carbonates.
•Most RO plants put the water through a ‘post-treatment’ process whereby salts are added to make TDS around 300 mg/l.
Stubble burning
•Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat
•More than 4500 villages in Punjab and Haryana have been declared as Zero Stubble Burning Villages during 2018 as not a single crop burning incident was reported from these villages during the year
•Stubble burning results in emission of harmful gases such carbon diaoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide along with particulate matter.
•The existing Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme must be so interpreted as to enable the States concerned to wholly or partly deny the benefit of MSP to those who continue to burn the crop residue : Supreme Court
•[As many as eight districts in Punjab and three in Haryana have been identified as contributing around 62% of the total crop burning emission]
•As per the Centre, the events had declined 19% this year, including a 16.8% reduction in Punjab.[As per Punjab, there is an increase of 2.3% in the number of incidents.]
Living root bridges:Also known as Jing Kieng Jri Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•these are aerial bridges built by weaving and manipulating the roots of the Indian rubber tree.
•They have been serving as connectors for generations in Meghalaya.
•Built over centuries, the bridges, primarily a means to cross streams and rivers, have also become world-famous tourist attractions.
Malabar Tree Toad (MTT): Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•It is a very rare species of amphibian endemic to the Ghats.
•It is an endangered species that spends most of its life on trees, coming to the ground only during the first monsoon showers to mate.
•Bengaluru-based non-profit is working to train and equip residents of villages in the Western Ghats stretching from Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu for mapping the range of an extremely rare species of toad- Malabar Tree toad
_________
Constitution Day of India
•Samvidhan Divas is celebrated every year on November 26 to mark the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted. [While the adoption of the Constitution took place on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950.]
•The draft of the constitution was prepared by the drafting committee under BR Ambedkar’s aegis. According to the government notification, the Constitution Day was also a tribute to Dr. BR Ambedkar.
Rules for the Conduct of Business
•The suspension of two Congress members by Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla after unruly scenes in the House has brought back focus on the conduct of MPs, and related issues
Rule 378 of the Rules for the Conduct of Business states: “The Speaker shall preserve order and shall have all powers necessary for the purpose of enforcing own decisions.”
Rule 373 says: “The Speaker, if is of the opinion that the conduct of any member is grossly disorderly, may direct such member to withdraw immediately from the House, and any member so ordered to withdraw shall do so forthwith and shall remain absent during the remainder of the day’s sitting.”
Need of the hour:
•Political parties should have a code of conduct for their MPs and MLAs to help monitor their behaviour in Parliament and state legislatures.
•Political parties could include such a code in their election manifestos that would help enable voters to make their judgement before voting
Global Housing Technology Challenge
•GHTC aims to fast-track the construction of affordable housing and meet the target of constructing 1.2 crore houses by 2022.
•GHTC focuses on identifying and mainstreaming proven demonstrable technologies for lighthouse projects and spotting potential future technologies for incubation and acceleration support through ASHA (Affordable Sustainable Housing Accelerators) — India
•The Union Government has launched the Credit-linked Subsidy Services Awas Portal (CLAP) for Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Housing for All (Urban).
•The portal was launched along with the signing of agreements between the Union Housing Affairs Ministry and state governments for the construction of LightHouse projects under GHTC-India
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC);-
•It is the flagship project of the multi-billion dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
•CPEC eventually aims at linking the city of ‘Gwadar’ in South Western Pakistan to China’s North Western region ‘Xinjiang’
•The US has warned that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) would only benefit Beijing and inflict heavy debt burden on Islamabad.
•The US observed that the CPEC was not an aid to Pakistan but a form of financing that guaranteed profits for Chinese enterprises, with little benefits for Islamabad.
•It passes through PoK. Any Indian participation would inextricably be linked to the country’s legitimate claims on PoK
Coalbed methane (CBM)
•It is an unconventional form of natural gas found in coal deposits or coal seams.
•CMB is formed during the process of coalification, the transformation of plant material into coal.
CBM can be used
°In Power generation.
°As Compressed natural gas (CNG) auto fuel.
°As feedstock for fertilisers
•India has the fifth-largest coal reserves in the world, and CBM has been looked at as a clean alternative fuel with significant prospects.
•India’s CBM resources are estimated at around 92 trillion cubic feet (TCF), or 2,600 billion cubic metres (BCM).
•The country’s coal and CBM reserves are found in 12 states of India, with the Gondwana sediments of eastern India holding the bulk.
The Damodar Koel valley and Son valley are prospective areas for CBM development.
What is the Bodoland dispute Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The Home Ministry has declared the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) along with all its groups, factions, and front organisations as an “unlawful association” under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
•The ban has been extended by five more years for its involvement in a series of violent activities including killings and extortion, and for joining hands with anti-India forces
•Bodos are the single largest tribal community in Assam, making up over 5-6 per cent of the state’s population. They have controlled large parts of Assam in the past.
•The four districts in Assam — Kokrajhar, Baksa, Udalguri and Chirang — that constitute the Bodo Territorial Area District (BTAD), are home to several ethnic groups.
•In 1966-67, the demand for a separate state called Bodoland was raised under the banner of the Plains Tribals Council of Assam (PTCA), a political outfit.
•For centuries, they survived sanskritisation without giving up their original ethnic identity [From then on, they have been consistently deprived of the political and socio-economic rights by successive state and central governments]
ASI protected temples in India:
•Information on this was given in Lok Sabha recently.
•A total 651 Hindu temples in India are designated as Centrally Protected Monuments under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
•The largest number of Hindu temples under the ASI’s protection is in Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh
Rohtang Tunnel:
•Rohtang tunnel will officially be ready for inauguration by September 2020.
•The 8.8 km long tunnel will cut through Pir Panjal range.
•When complete, it will become the world’s longest highway tunnel above 10,000 feet.
•The tunnel provides a temporary winter link to the outside world not only to residents of Lahaul and Spiti but also to those living in Zanskar Valley of Ladakh.
Flight service from Imphal to Mandalay:
•Last week, Myanmar’s private airlines Air KBZ kicked off a chartered flight service from Manipur’s state capital Imphal to Myanmar’s second-largest city Mandalay.
•Mandalay is an important economic centre of Myanmar and the flight service is said to be benefiting both traders and tourist
Assam roofed turtle: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•The multipurpose Assamese gamosa, a ubiquitous, white cotton towel, has been assigned a new function — conservation of rare freshwater turtles- Assam roofed turtle.
•It is an endangered small freshwater species.
•Protected under Schedule I of the wildlife protection act
________
Labour Code on Industrial Relations 2019
•The Union cabinet has approved the Labour Code on Industrial Relations 2019.
•The code will combine Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Trade Unions Act, 1926, and the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946.
•It seeks to allow companies to hire workers on fixed-term contract of any duration.
•The code has retained the threshold on the worker count at 100 for prior government approval before retrenchment, but it has a provision for changing ‘such number of employees’ through notification.
•While this means workers can be hired seasonally for six months or a year it also means that all workers will be treated at par with regular workers for benefits.
UNDP launches Accelerator Lab in India, to work on pollution, water issues
•The Accelerator Lab is an innovative new initiative by the UNDP, Germany and Qatar, to find 21st century solutions to today”s complex new challenges
•The Accelerator Labs are UNDP’s new way of working in development. They will work together with national and global partners to find radically new approaches that fit the complexity of current development challenges.
▫️Like Rapid testing and iteration to implement what works and go beyond the obvious solutions.
•Combining the best understanding, ideas and expertise to generate collective knowledge.
•Accelerating progress by bringing expertise, creativity and collective intelligence to bear. etc.
‘Supplementary Grants’
•Supplementary grants are the additional grant required to meet the required expenditure of the government [FM Sitharaman recently tabled the first batch of Supplementary Demands for Grants for the financial year 2019-20 in both the Houses of Parliament saying of the total spend, cash outgo will be about 19,000 crore]
•Supplementary, additional or excess grants and Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants are mentioned in the Constitution of India 1949.
[Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.]
•When grants, authorised by the Parliament, fall short of the required expenditure, an estimate is presented before the Parliament for Supplementary or Additional grants. (These grants are presented and passed by the Parliament before the end of the financial year)
FASTags
•From December 1, FASTags will be mandatory for toll payment on National Highways.
•The objective is to remove bottlenecks and capture all toll electronically.
•All 560-odd plazas under the control of the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) will collect toll without human intervention, and vehicles need not stop to pay toll.
How does FASTag work?
•The device employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for payments directly from the prepaid or savings account linked to it.
•It is affixed on the windscreen, so the vehicle can drive through plazas without stopping.
•It is valid for five years, and can be recharged as and when required
EU declares climate emergency
•The symbolic move is expected to pressurise countries to act ahead of the United Nations summit on climate change that starts on December 2 in Spain.
•Similar climate emergency declarations have already been made in several EU member states, including Spain, France and the United Kingdom. Outside Europe only Canada, Argentina and Bangladesh have declared a climate emergency
•There is no single definition of what that means but many local areas say they want to be carbon-neutral by 2030.
•It varies. For example, for UK government it is to reduce carbon emissions by 80% (compared to 1990 levels) by 2050
Dendrochronology Conference:
•The 6th Asian Dendrochronology Conference being held at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences in Lucknow.
•This is the first time that the conference is being held in India.
Dendrochronology is the study of tree rings that hold a wealth of information about not only a tree’s past but also that of the ecosystem in which it lives.
YuWaah’- Generation Unlimited initiative: Launched by UNICEF.
•It brings young people together with the private sector, governments, international and local organisations.
•The aim is to tackle the urgent challenge of investing in their learning and training so that they are prepared for the complex and fast-changing world of work and can be active and engaged citizens.
____
Quick Revision
Type of questions(ask) in Indian Parliament
Starred Questions: In starred questions a member desires an oral answer from the Minister in the House and is required to be distinguished by him/her with an asterisk
Unstarred Questions: In unstarred questions written answer is desired by the member and is deemed to be laid on the Table of the House by Minister.
Short Notice Questions: In this a member may give a notice of question on a matter of public importance and of urgent character for oral answer at a notice less than 10 days prescribed as the minimum period of notice for asking a question in ordinary course
•The number of starred questions was fixed at 20 per Question Hour from the fourth session of the fifth Lok Sabha in 1972
QS University Rankings for Asia Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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The National University of Singapore is ranked Asia’s best for the second consecutive year. It is followed by Nanyang Technological University, which has risen from 3rd to 2nd; and the University of Hong Kong.
96 Indian institutions rank among 550 for the continent.
•India does not yet have a university among the top 30.
The best performing institution from India is IIT Bombay, which drops one place to 34th position (35-1=34th). It is followed by IIT Delhi at 43rd place and IIT Madras at 50th. [In Asia]
•The Indian higher education system has grown exponentially over the past decade the number of universities has nearly doubled, and the number of colleges has grown by 50 per cent.
Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR–RC)
•It is a principle within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
•It acknowledges the different capabilities and differing responsibilities of individual countries in addressing climate change.
•Reflecting CBDR-RC, the Convention divided countries into “Annex I” (for developed countries) and “non-Annex I,” (for developing countries)
•The Union Cabinet has approved India’s approach for the 25th Conference of Parties (COP) scheduled to be held in Spain.
•India’s approach will be guided by principles and provisions of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement particularly the principles of Equity and CBDR-RC
Contract for the Web
Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, has announced a “Contract for the Web” — aimed at saving the future of his invention.
•The idea is to create a global plan of action for all stakeholders to together commit to building a “better” Web. The goal is to create a standard policy for a Web that benefits all.
•The Contract consists of nine principles — three each for governments, private companies, and individuals and civil society to endorse.
•The Contract is not meant to be “simply aspirational”, or just a “declaration”. “It’s actually meant to be implemented, and it’s meant to be a plan of action.
•Governments who are looking to regulate in the digital era, can use the contract as a roadmap to lay out their policies and laws going forward
Emission Gap Report: [released by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)] Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•It measures the gap between what we need to do and what we are actually doing to tackle climate change.
•Also called as the “Commitment Gap”, it is the difference between the low level of emissions that the world needs to drop to, compared with the projected level of emissions based on countries’ current commitments to decarbonization.
•The world will fail to meet the 1.5°C temperature goal of the Paris Agreement unless global greenhouse gas emissions fall by 7.6 per cent each year.
Global temperatures are set to rise about 3.2 degrees C by 2100
•The top four emitters (China, USA, EU and India) contributed to over 55% of the total emissions over the last decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation.
•India is the fourth-largest emitter of Green House Gases (GHGs). [It is among a small group of countries that are on their way to achieve their self-declared climate targets under the Paris Agreement.]
Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) Initiative
•The initiative is aimed at providing a Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) as a developmental effort that would benefit both vehicle-users as well as farmers and entrepreneurs.
•Compressed Bio-Gas plants are proposed to be set up mainly through independent entrepreneurs.
•Bio-gas is produced naturally through a process of anaerobic decomposition from waste / bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, sewage treatment plant waste, etc
•Compressed Bio-Gas is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential. With calorific value (~52,000 KJ/kg) and other properties similar to CNG
Trachischium apteii: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•It is a newly discovered snake species from Arunachal Pradesh.
•It was found in Tally Valley Wildlife Sanctuary.
•It belongs to a group of fossorial (adapted to digging) snakes that live mostly underground, and surface mainly during or after a heavy monsoon shower
HIM VIJAY Military Exercise:
•HIM Vijay is the Indian Army’s biggest mountain combat exercise.
•It is the first-ever military drill that was held in the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.
•The exercise will include troop mobilisation, mountain assault and air assault.
_________
Who was Udham Singh
•He born in Sunam in Punjab’s Sangrur district in 1899.
•He was a political activist who got associated with the Ghadar Party while in the US.
•In 1934, Singh made his way to London with the purpose of assassinating O’Dwyer, who in 1919 had been the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab and unsurprisingly, Singh considered O’Dwyer to be responsible for the massacre.
Instead of Dyer, who instructed his men to open fire at the crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, O’Dwyer is considered to be the actual perpetrator, since Dyer could not have executed it without his permission.
•He was sentenced to death and was hanged on July 31, 1940 at Pentonville Prison
•【BJP MP recently mentioned about Udham Singh in Parliament.】
Registration of political parties under Section 29A of the RP Act, 1951
Jannayak Janta Party of Haryana has been granted the status of a recognised State party by the ECI.
【Now India has 8 national parties, 53 state parties】
•A party seeking registration under the said Section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation as per guidelines prescribed by the Election Commission of India in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Commission of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
Conditions for recognition as a state party:
1. A party should win minimum three percent of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly.
2. A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
3. A party should secure at least six percent of the total valid votes polled during general election to a Lok Sabha or State Legislative Assembly and should, in addition, win at least one Lok Sabha, and two Legislative Assembly seats in that election,
4. Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state, addition to one seat in any state
The dispute between Britain and Mauritius over Chagos islands
•Mauritius called the UK an “illegal colonial occupier”, after it ignored a UN mandated deadline to return the Chagos Islands, a small archipelago in the Indian Ocean, to Mauritius
What’s the issue?
•Britain detached the Chagos Islands from Mauritius in 1965, three years before Mauritian independence.
•From 1967 to 1973, some 1,500 Chagos islanders were gradually forced to leave their homes so that the largest island, Diego Garcia, could be leased to the US for a strategic airbase. Today, Diego Garcia hosts a major US military base
•In 2017, Mauritius successfully petitioned the United Nations to seek an ICJ advisory opinion on the legality of the separation
[ICJ said, The UK should end its control of the Chagos Islands in the Indian Ocean as rapidly as possible. The islands are not lawfully separated from the former colony of Mauritius.]
•The UK is slowly finding itself more diplomatically isolated after its failures at the UN General Assembly concerning Chagos Islands. The shambles that is Brexit has also alienated the UK to a certain degree in terms of its relations with other EU members.
Global Migration Report 2020: released by International Organisation for Migration’s (IOM)
India accounts for the highest share with 17.5 million Indians living outside the country.
•India is followed by Mexico (11.8 million) and China (10.7 million).
•Roughly two-thirds of international migrants are labour migrants.
•International remittances in 2018 (2020 report) reached $689 billion, out of which India received $78.6 billion from the 17.5 million living abroad.[ in 2019 it was around $ 83 billion]
•The top migration corridors for Indians are the United Arab Emirates, the US and Saudi Arabia, Indonesia ,UK ,and Canada
•Highest number of migrants entering India come from Bangladesh.
•The United States was the top remittance-issuer, at $68 billion, followed by the United Arab Emirates ($44.4 billion) and Saudi Arabia ($36.1 billion).
India’s cold wave zone:
•India’s cold-wave zone covers the north Indian states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and also other states like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar.
【 India’s cold-wave regions to have warm winter this year as per IMD】

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