September 2019 Quick Revision Compilation

Delhi’s Feroz Shah Kotla stadium is set to be renamed Arun Jaitley Stadium 
Firoz Shah Tughlaq:
•Born in 1309 and ascended the throne of Delhi after the demise of his cousin Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
•He was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty that ruled over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD. Tughlaq was in power from 1351 to 1388 AD.
•The British called him the ‘father of the irrigation department’ because of the many gardens and canals that he built
▫️He established the Diwan-i-Khairat — office for charity.
▫️He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan — department of slave
▫️He established Sarais (rest house) for the benefits of merchants and other travellers etc.
Munich Agreement Hide —


•On September 1, 1939 — German troops marched into Poland, triggering the beginning of World War II.
•Great Britain and France, which had assured help to Poland, declared war on Germany and its allies two days later, on September 3. [The beginning of the War exposed to the world the folly of the Munich Agreement.]
•The Agreement was signed among Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain on September 29-30, 1938.
• Czechoslovakia, the country whose region was about to be annexed, was not officially party to the Agreement. It was forced to agree to the deal under pressure from Great Britain and France, which had a military alliance with the country.
•Six months after the Munich Agreement was signed, Hitler went back on his commitments and invaded the whole of Czechoslovakia. War was on its way.
•The agreement has been seen as a disastrous act of appeasement of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime
Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI)
•It is systematic and periodic transmission of “bulk” taxpayer information by the source country to the residence country,
•AEOI is the exchange of information between countries without having to request it.
•Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) Regime between Switzerland and India kicked off from September 1, 2019. Under this mechanism, India will start receiving information on all financial accounts held by Indian residents in Switzerland, for the year 2018.
•This is not a new measure. In 2016, India and Switzerland had signed an information-sharing deal on bank accounts, which was to come in effect from September 2019.
‘Build for Digital India’ programme
• Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and Google have signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme.
•The programme will give engineering students a platform to develop market-ready, technology-based solutions that address key social problems.
•The programme will provide great exposure to students in dealing with real world problems and develop deeper understanding of how newer technologies can be used to solve them
‘Samudrayaan’ project
•It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals.
•It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies.
•The project is expected to become a reality by 2021-22.
•The project has been undertaken by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). 
•If the ‘Samudrayaan’ project is successful, India will join the league of developed nations in the exploration of minerals from oceans.
India could be the first developing country to undertake such a project
Country’s longest electrified rail tunnel
•India’s longest electrified rail tunnel was recentlyinaugurated in Andhra Pradesh.
•The 6.7 km long tunnel was constructed at a cost of Rs 437 crore and connects Cherlopalli and Rapuru.
Champions Boat League (CBL)
•The Champions Boat League (CBL) has been conceived to transform the state’s legendary and historically-significant ‘vallamkali’ (snake boat races) into a world-class sporting event.
•The snake boat, or ‘chundam vallam’ is essentially a long canoe that can seat up to 100 rowers and can have a length between 100 and 138 feet in length
•Snake boat races owe their origins as far back as the 13th century when princely kingdoms, located in present-day Alappuzha along the backwaters, would have raging battles in the water
Interpol Red Notice
•Interpol describes an RN as “a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action”.
•RNs contain information that helps identify wanted persons, such as their names, dates of birth, nationality, and physical attributes such as the colour of their hair and eyes, as well as pictures and biometric data such as fingerprints, if they are available
•An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.
Formation of Interim government of India(1946)
•On September 2, 1946, the interim government of India led by Jawaharlal Nehru was formed
•It was the only such cabinet in India’s history in which both Congress and the Muslim League shared power at the Centre
•Starting with the Cripps mission in 1942, a number of attempts were made by colonial authorities to form an interim government in India.
•In 1946, elections to the Constituent Assembly were held following the proposals of the British Cabinet Mission dispatched by the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
•The interim government functioned according to the older Government of India Act of 1919.
Tibetan Democracy Day
•September 2 marks the anniversary of the establishment of the democratic system of the Tibetan people living in exile in India
•In February 1960, after he crossed over into India, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama outlined in Bodh Gaya, a detailed programme of democratic practice for exiled Tibetans.
•He advised them to set up an elected body with three exiled representatives each from the three provinces, and one each from the four religious schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
•After elections were held, 13 elected representatives, called ‘Deputies’, were designated as the ‘Commission of Tibetan People’s Deputies’ (CTPD). They took oath on September 2, 1960.
•Subsequently from 1975 onward, this date began to be formally observed as Tibetan Democracy Day.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
•Established in 1994.
•It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
•It is the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
•To help publicise the Convention, 2006 was declared “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”
•Its 197 Parties aim, through partnerships, to implement the Convention and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The end goal is to protect land from over-use and drought, so it can continue to provide food, water and energy.
•Desertification;- Is the process by which natural or human causes reduce the biological productivity of drylands (arid and semiarid lands)
Malé Declaration
•The fourth South Asian Speakers’ Summit was held recently in Maldives capital with the secretary general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and senior lawmakers from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
• Conclusion: The Declaration “unanimously” felt that Kashmir was an “internal matter” of India and overlooked all assertions made by Islamabad on the issue. 
•India has defended its decision to scrap provisions of Article 370 that have special status to Jammu and Kashmir, saying that it was an internal matter.[ India has also snubbed Pakistan for interfering in the internal matters of the country, saying that Pakistan was misleading the world]
Interpol General Assembly
•The International Criminal Police Organisation, or Interpol, is a 194-member intergovernmental organisation.
headquartered in Lyon, France.
•It was formed in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission, and started calling itself Interpol in 1956.
India joined the organisation in 1949, and is one of its oldest members.
•Interpol’s declared global policing goals include countering terrorism, promoting border integrity worldwide, protection of vulnerable communities, providing a secure cyberspace for people and businesses, curbing illicit markets, supporting environment security, and promoting global integrity
Association of World Election Bodies
•It is the largest association of Election Management Bodies (EMBs) worldwide. 
•Established on October 14, 2013 in Song-do, South Korea.
•Permanent secretariat is located at Seoul.
•Aims to foster efficiency and effectiveness in conducting free, fair, transparent and participative elections worldwide
•India will take over as A-WEB’s Chair for the 2019-21 term.
Inter-ministerial panel on fintech
•A comprehensive legal framework to protect consumers of digital services.
•RBI should mandate banks to share crucial customer data after consent.
•Regulation technology (or RegTech) should be adopted by all financial sector regulators to develop standards and facilitate adoption by financial service providers.
•Fintech should be used to improve access of financial products for MSMEs, farmers and poorer sections of the society.
•Digitise land records across the country on a war footing
AH-64 Apache combat helicopters Hide —


•inducted into IAF.(These are US- made helicopters.)
•It is one of the world’s most advanced attack helicopters with multi-role combat capabilities
Who is a Professor Emerita/Emeritus
•Worldwide, ‘Professor Emeritus/Emerita’ is the title bestowed upon an eminent retired academic in recognition of their work and distinguished service
•In India, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has a ‘Scheme of Emeritus Fellowship’ in order “to provide an opportunity to the superannuated teachers who have been actively engaged in research and teaching programmes in the preceding years to undertake research, without any restriction of position or pay scales
•Lignin is a complex organic polymer rich in polyphenols with antimicrobial qualities.
•It is found in almost all dry plants including crop residues and the woody bark of trees
[Researchers have developed a lignin-based nanocomposite which could potentially have commercial value. The lignin-based nanomaterial can act as additive in coating and packaging materials. ]
Joint Naval Annual Quality Conclave (JNAQC)
•Conclave provides a vibrant environment for stimulating discussions on all aspects pertaining to Transformation of QA Paradigm and will benefit all stakeholders by enabling cross-fertilisation of ideas and best practices from diverse fields
•Joint Naval Annual Quality Conclave (JNAQC) to be held in Visakhapatnam.
Theme ‘Transformation of QA Paradigm: Opportunities and Challenges
Terracotta Grinder:
•The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) has launched the first-ever ‘Terracotta Grinder’ at Varanasi.
•It will reduce the cost of production, and will also help to solve the problem of shortage of clays for pottery making
Project REPLAN (REducing PLastic in Nature)
•Launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
•It aims to make carry bags by mixing processed and treated plastic waste with cotton fibre rags in the ratio 20:80.
•The made paper is found to have good strength and durability.
•It can be used to make paper bags, fine tissues and other paper-based items
Asiatic Society of Mumbai
•It is a learned society whose activities include conducting historical research, awarding historians, and running an institute of post-graduate studies.
•Its library, home to over 1 lakh books, consists of rare manuscripts contributed to it by the East India Company, as well as generous donations.
•It began journey in 1804 as the Literary Society of Bombay.
•Founded by Sir James Mackintosh, a Scottish colonial administrator who had a keen interest in Oriental studies
【Asiatic Society of Mumbai has elected the first woman president in the 215 years of its existence.
Prof Vispi Balaporia will now head the institution.】
Swachh Iconic places;-
•To achieve higher level of sanitation/cleanliness in and around iconic places in the country
Vaishno Devi, J&K
Taj Mahal, UP
Tirupati Temple, Andhra Pradesh
Golden Temple, Punjab
Meenakshi Temple, Tamil Nadu etc.
Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain
Char Minar, Hyderabad
Gaya Tirth in Bihar
Somnath temple in Gujarat etc.
Pangong Lake (Leh-Ladakh, J&K) etc.
North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited (NERAMAC)
•The NERAMAC is a pioneer marketing organization in the field of Agri-Horti sector of the North-eastern region, involved in supporting farmers right from the fields and up to the markets to the end consumers through registered FPO/FPCs.
•It was incorporated in the year 1982 as a Government of India Enterprise and having its registered office at Guwahati and operating under the administrative control of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria View — 
•The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization.
•It aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations
•Founded in 2002, the Global Fund is a partnership between governments, civil society, the private sector and people affected by the diseases.
•The organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland
PIL in Supreme Court for community kitchens in all states to combat hunger
•Many children under the age of five die every day due to hunger and malnutrition and this condition was violative of various fundamental rights, including the right to food and life of citizens.
•Therefore, it is necessary to create a national food grid for people falling outside the purview of the public distribution scheme.
【there are the concepts of soup kitchen, meal centre, food kitchen or community kitchen, in other countries, where food is offered to the hungry usually for free or sometimes at a below-market price.】
•Prevalence of undernourishment in India is 14.8%, higher than both the global and Asian average
One nation-one ration card
•It will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
•This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption
•If ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ is implemented, it will further boost corruption in an already corrupted Public Distribution System.[ Fair price shop owners would give Ration to their relatives from other village too (And would say “Ration To Khatam ho gya!)] 
ANDREX Project
•The project seeks to assess the role of the Weddell gyre in driving the southern closure of the meridional overturning circulation, in ventilating the deep global ocean, and in sequestering carbon and nutrients in the global ocean abyss.
•Scientists have discovered that, contrary to existing assumptions, biological processes far out at sea are the most important factors determining how the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide.
•This enhances the understanding of the link between the Southern Ocean — next to Antarctica — and the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment
•It is a joint research mission between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) teams.
•It aims to study the viability of diverting an asteroid by crashing a spacecraft into its surface.
•The project aims to deflect the orbit of one of the two Didymos asteroids between Earth and Mars, with an observer craft gauging the effect of the impact more effectively than ground-based observers could manage
ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX)
The first ASEAN-US Maritime Exercise (AUMX)between regional bloc- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and United States is being held at the Sattahip Naval Base in Thailand.
Poshan Maah(National Nutrition Month);-
•It seeks to synergise all efforts by leveraging technology & intends to take nutrition awareness at grass root level by Jan Andolan 
•being celebrated during the month of September across the Country{by MoWCD}
•POSHAN Abhiyaan : aims to ensure service delivery & interventions by use of technology
Mt. Kun: [It is the second-highest peak in between the Zanskar and Kargil regions of Ladakh]
•The Indian Army recently conducted a mountaineering expedition to Mt. Kun.
•Nun (7135 m) is the highest peak in the part of the Himalayan range lying on the Indian side of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir
Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019
•As part of the ongoing Indo-US defence cooperation, a joint military training, Exercise Yudh Abhyas – 2019 is being conducted at Joint Base Lewis Mc Chord, Washington, USA.
Apache attack helicopters:
•The Indian Air Force (IAF) has formally inducted eight AH-64E Apache attack helicopters into service at the Pathankot Air Force Station.
•It is one of the world’s most advanced attack helicopters with multi-role combat capabilities
Teachers’ Day 2019
•Teacher’s Day is observed annually on September 5, as Dr. Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888.
•Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was India’s first Vice President and second President.
•His book, ‘The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore’ attracted global attention to Indian philosophy
•He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1954
Dadabhai Naoroji: (Born in 1825 at Navsari, in present-day Gujarat)
•September 4, 2019 was the 194th birth anniversary of Dadabhai Naoroji, the “Grand Old Man of India”
•He served as the first Indian member of the British parliament
•In 1885, Naoroji became a vice-president of the Bombay Presidency Association, was nominated to the Bombay legislative council by Governor Lord Reay, and helped form the Indian National Congress.
•He was Congress president thrice, in 1886, 1893, and 1906
•Dadabhai Naoroji was among the key proponents of the ‘Drain Theory’, disseminating it in his 1901 book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India
What is Drain Theory? : Imperial Britain was draining away India’s wealth to itself through exploitative economic policies, including India’s rule by foreigners
Global Liveability Index 2019: released by The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)
•The index ranks 140 global cities based on their living conditions (Stability
,Health care.,Culture and environment., Education , Infrastructure)
The list is topped by Vienna (Austria) for the second consecutive year.
New Delhi has dropped by six places to rank 118th on the list.
Mumbai also fell two places since last year to rank 119th
• Reasons for decline in liveability in Indian cities:
Abuses against journalists.
Rise in Crime rates.
Climatic changes.
Constrained liveability conditions.
Unlawful Activities (Prevention)Act,1967;-
•Lok Sabha passes the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019.
•The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. 
•Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: 
(i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, 
(ii) prepares for terrorism, 
(iii) promotes terrorism, or 
(iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism
•Organizations Banned Under UAPA⤵
:Islamic Research Foundation (IRF)
:National Liberation Front in Tripura (NLFT)
:All Tripura Tiger Forum (ATTF)
Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs)
•It is an agreement between a taxpayer and the tax authority determining the Transfer Pricing methodology for pricing the tax payer’s international transactions for future years
•APA provides certainty with respect to the tax outcome of the tax payer’s international transactions.
•The progress of the APA scheme strengthens the government’s resolve of fostering a non-adversarial tax regime. The •Indian APA programme has been appreciated nationally and internationally for being able to address complex transfer pricing issues in a fair and transparent manner.
External benchmark rates
•The RBI has made it compulsory for banks to link their new floating rate home, auto and MSME loans to an external benchmark from October 1 so that the borrowers can enjoy lower rate of interest
What is external benchmarking of loans?
When you borrow money from a bank, be it for purchasing a house, car or for business purposes, interest is levied based on certain methodologies approved by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Maritime Route Between Chennai and Vladivostok View — 
•A Memorandum of Intent was recently signed for the development of maritime communications between Chennai and Vladivostok in Russia’s Far East Region after Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
•This assumes significance because it ensures there will be connectivity between the two major ports which will give impetus to the cooperation between India and the Russian Far East
Nuakhai: Harvesting festival of Odisha
•The festival of nuakhai is a festival to celebrate newly harvested food by the farmers.
•The festival traces it origin to the Vedic period where the sages or Rishis used to talk about Panchyajna. One among them was Pralambana yajna which means the cutting of new crops and offering them to mother goddess as followed in Nuakhai festival.
•It is also called Nuakhai Parab or Nuakahi Bhetghat.
India among top 10 nations in gold reserves
•According to the latest release by the World Gold Council, U.S. leads the country list with total gold reserves of 8,133.5 tonnes followed by Germany with 3,366.8 tonnes.[IMF is ranked third]
India has pipped the Netherlands to move into the list of top ten countries in terms of total gold reserves
•According to the World Gold Council, India has gold reserves totalling 618.2 tonnes, which is marginally higher than the Netherlands’ reserves of 612.5 tonnes
Mapping lightning across India
•For the first time, a report- Mid- Monsoon 2019 Lightning Report– has mapped lightning strikes across the country, and the lives they have claimed
•Lightning strikes have caused at least 1,311 deaths in the four-month period between April and July this year
•It is possible to predict, 30-40 minutes in advance, when a lightning strike heads towards Earth.
•The base of these clouds typically lies within 1-2 km of the Earth’s surface, while their top is 12-13 km away. 
•Temperatures towards the top of these clouds are in the range of minus 35 to minus 45 degrees Celsius.
•As water vapour moves upward in the cloud, the falling temperature causes it to condense. Heat is generated in the process, which pushes the molecules of water further up
•Collisions follow, and trigger the release of electrons — a process that is very similar to the generation of sparks of electricity. As the moving free electrons cause more collisions and more electrons, a chain reaction ensues.
CBI to get Centralised Technology Vertical
•The centre is planning to set up a Centralised Technology Vertical (CTV) under the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
Centralised Technology Vertical (CTV) : It facilitates real-time information sharing with investigators across the country.
•India has the second largest users of Internet in the world.
•And there is rise in “cyber manipulators” across the country. They are posing risk to the country by circulating fake videos on social media. This needs to be addressed
‘eat right movement’ campaign
•This movement is aligned with the government’s flagship public health programmes such as POSHAN Abhiyaan, Anemia Mukt Bharat, Ayushman Bharat Yojana and Swachh Bharat Mission
It was launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
•The movement aims to cut down salt/sugar and oil consumption by 30% in three years.
•It also aims to engage and enable citizens to improve their health and well-being by making the right food choices.
WHO South-East Asia Region plans to banish measles, rubella by 2023 View — 
•Eliminating measles will prevent 500,000 deaths a year in the region, while eliminating rubella/ CRS would avert about 55,000 cases of rubella and promote health and wellbeing of pregnant women and infants.
Measles: It is a highly contagious viral disease. Spread: Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons.
Rubella : It is generally a mild infection, but has serious consequences if infection occurs in pregnant women, causing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)
•CRS is characterized by congenital anomalies in the foetus and newborns affecting the eyes (glaucoma, cataract), ears (hearing loss), brain etc.
Eastern Economic Forum
•It was established by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 2015.
•It takes place each year in Vladivostok.
Serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues in the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and technological sectors, as well as of the global challenges facing Russia and other nations.
•India extends $1 billion line of credit for development of Russia’s Far East
•About 1/3 of all coal reserves and hydro-engineering resources of the country are here. Forests of the region comprise about 30% of the total forest area of Russia
Hepatitis B
•On September 3, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Thailand became the first four countries in the World Health Organization’s southeast Asia region to have successfully controlled hepatitis B
•The virus is said to be controlled when the disease prevalence is reduced to less than 1% among children less than five years of age.
•Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected
•Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become a long-term infection.
•Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body, and causes chronic, or lifelong, infection.
There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Institutes of Eminence Scheme
•The institutes of eminence scheme under the Union human resource development (HRD) ministryaims to project Indian institutes to global recognition.
•The selected institutes will enjoy complete academic and administrative autonomy.
•Eligibility: Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for the eminence tag
•The public institutions on the list will then be eligible for a government grant of ₹1,000 crore.
•The Human Resource Development Ministry has awarded the status of Institute of Eminence to the IIT-Madras, the IIT-Kharagpur, Delhi University, Benares Hindu University and the University of Hyderabad.
•Four private universities — the Vellore Institute of Technology, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Jamia Hamdard University and the Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology — were issued Letters of Intent to grant them the status
Indo–Thai CORPAT
•28th edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) between the Indian Navy (IN) and the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) is being held.
•The Objectives of the Indo-Thai CORPAT are to ensure effective implementation of United Nations Conventions on Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) 
•which specify regulations regarding protection and conservation of natural resources, conservation of marine environment, prevention and suppression of illegal, unregulated fishing activity/ drug trafficking/ piracy, exchange of information in prevention of smuggling, illegal immigration and conduct of Search and Rescue operations at sea
Lunar Missions so far
•Chandrayaan-2 is 110th Moon mission and the 11th this decade.
•90 out of the 109 so far, were sent between 1958 and 1976.
So far only NASA of the United States has been able to land human beings on the moon. So far, six teams of two astronauts each have landed on the moon, all between 1969 and 1972. After that, no attempt has been made to land a moon.
Germany to phase out glyphosate by 2023
•Germany took this step to protect insect populations that play a pivotal role in ecosystems and pollination of food crops.
•Glyphosate is used widely in agriculture, forestry, urban and home applications
Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019
•Released by the World Economic Forum.
(Covers 140 economies)
India’s highest improvement was in enabling environment, by 10 places to 98.
The least improvement is in infrastructure as well as in natural and cultural rankings, by just three places each, but India’s rank was already high in the latter.•The study scores countries on four indicators — enabling environment; travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions; infrastructure; natural and cultural rankings.
•India is ranked 34, up six places from 2017.
Indus Valley settlers had a distinct genetic lineage View — 
•A study of DNA from skeletal remains excavated from the Harappan cemetery at Rakhigarhi(Haryana) argues that the hunter-gatherers of South Asia- people from Indus Valley Civilisation, who then became a settled people, have an independent origin.
•The same hunter-gatherer communities developed into agricultural communities and formed the Harappan civilisation.
•With these findings, the theory of the Harappans having Steppe pastoral or ancient Iranian farmer ancestry thus stands refuted. The finding also negates the hypothesis about mass migration during Harappan times from outside South Asia
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao;-{launched in 2015}
•It is aimed at promoting gender equality and the significance of educating girls [& to Improve the Child Sex Ratio]
•Child Sex Ratio declined from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 and further to 918 in 2011 is alarming
•Child Sex Ratio is defined as number of girls per 1000 of boys b/w 0-6 years of age
•It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
•[Most people believe that food cooked on a chulha was healthier and tastier. In contrast, rotis cooked on gas cause indigestion.
They also believe cooking with solid fuels was healthy for the person cooking too: fumes purified the eyes because they caused tears, and in blowing into a traditional stove, a woman did kasrat (exercise).👏!]
•Current Ujjwala messaging, which focuses on the benefits of clean fuels for women, reinforces inequality. Advertisements showing that gas is so good that even men can cook with it will challenge both misinformation on LPG and gender inequalities in household tasks.【Best example is Me 😁:)
Unlawful Activities (Prevention)Act,1967;-
•Lok Sabha passes the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019.
•The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. 
•Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: 
(i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, 
(ii) prepares for terrorism, 
(iii) promotes terrorism, or 
(iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism
•Organizations Banned Under UAPA⤵
:Islamic Research Foundation (IRF)
:National Liberation Front in Tripura (NLFT)
:All Tripura Tiger Forum (ATTF)
Indian Ocean Conference
•It was Initiated by India Foundation along with its partners from Singapore, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
•It is an annual effort to bring together Heads of States/Governments, Ministers, Thought Leaders, scholars, diplomats, bureaucrats and practitioners from across the region.
•Indian Ocean is also rich in natural resources. 40% of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin.
•Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15% of the world’s total
•Indian Ocean coastal sediments are also important sources of titanium, zirconium, tin, zinc, and copper
•Fourth Indian Ocean Conference 2019 was recently held in Male, capital of Maldives.
Theme: ‘Securing the Indian Ocean Region: Traditional and Non-Traditional Challenges
Foot-and-mouth disease View — 
•It is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease.
•Affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids
•PM to launch National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease.
•It is a 100% centrally funded programme, with a total outlay of Rs.12,652 crore from 2019 to 2024.
•It aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.
•Humans can be infected with foot-and-mouth disease through contact with infected animals, but this is extremely rare
•The status of Chandrayaan 2 mission is unknown hours after Chandrayaan 2’s lander Vikram began final descent towards the moon and lost contact with ground control around 2.1 km from the lunar surface.
•Soft-landing on any planetary surface is complicated. Vikram was to use five thrusters — four at the corners and one at the centre to make its final descent
•Then there is the issue of moon dust which could wreck the engines of the thrusters
•Vikram was supposed to begin its descent form a height of 35 km above the lunar surface and a velocity of around 6,000 kmph. In just over 10 minutes, the Vikram lander had to drop to a height of 7.4 km above the Moon altitude and lower its speed to around 526 kmph.
•Further, the lander had to reduce its speed to 331.2 kmph and reach a height of 5 km above the lunar surface.
•The south polar region of the Moon has not received sunlight for billions of years and is among the coldest spots in the Solar System. This, Isro says, makes lunar south pole region ripe to contain tonnes of water and “an undisturbed record” of the Solar System’s origins. [We know very bit about south polar surface & its weather]
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR): It was set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
•It works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
•The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Great Indian Bustards (GIB) View — 
•IUCN status: critically endangered.
•Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972 and in the CMS Convention and in Appendix I of CITES
•Found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

Market Intervention Price Scheme
•It is a price support mechanism implemented on the request of State Governments
•The Scheme is implemented when there is at least 10% increase in production or 10% decrease in the ruling rates over the previous normal year.
•Its objective is to protect the growers of these horticultural/agricultural commodities from making distress sale in the event of bumper crop during the peak arrival period when prices fall to very low level
•The MIS has been implemented in case of commodities like apples, kinnoo/malta, garlic, oranges, galgal, grapes, mushrooms, clove, black pepper, pineapple, ginger, red-chillies, coriander seed etc
ASEAN-India Trade in Goods Agreement (AITIGA)
•It is a free trade area among the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India.
•It came into force from January 2010
•India and the 10-member ASEAN have agreed to initiate a review of the bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in goods to make it more user-friendly, simple and trade facilitative
•Based on preliminary ASEAN data, two-way goods trade with India grew by 9.8 per cent from $73.6 billion in 2017 to $80.8 billion in 2018.
Fall Armyworm (FAW) View — 
•A native of the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas, FAW was first detected in the African continent in 2016. Since then, it has spread to other countries such as China, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
•It was reported in India for the first-time last year, when it affected crops in Karnataka. Within a span of only six months, almost 50 per cent of the country
•It is the polyphagous (ability to feed on different kinds of food) nature of the caterpillar and the ability of the adult moth to fly more than 100 km per night
Sardar Sarovar Dam View —
•It is a gravity dam on the Narmada river near Navagam, Gujarat in India. Four Indian states, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra and Rajasthan, receive water and electricity supplied from the dam. 
•The foundation stone of the project was laid out by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 5 April 1961
•Second biggest dam in terms of volume of concrete used in it. 
•Third highest concrete dam in India
•The height of the dam was increased to 138.68 metres in 2017. The water level in the dam reached 136.04 metres on September 9, 2019, due to heavy rains. The dam is to be filled to its full reservoir level by October 15
Framework for the Assessment of Benefits of Action/Cost of Inaction for Drought Preparedness report
•report has been released at the ongoing 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
•Droughts affect 42 per cent of India’s land while another 6 per cent is ‘exceptionally dry plane’; 40 per cent of the country’s population is vulnerable to droughts
▫️The 10-point framework:
•Appoint a national drought management policy commission
•State or define the goals and objectives of risk-based national drought management policy etc.
1995 Basel Ban Amendment
•The 1995 Basel Ban Amendment, a global waste dumping prohibition, has become an international law after Croatia (97th country to ratify) ratified it on September 6, 2019
•Adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995.
•To protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes.
•The amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries
Snow leopard
•Conservation of snow leopards and preservation of people’s cultural values can prevent land degradation of the Himalayan ecosystem, said experts at the ongoing 14th Conference of UNCCD [The snow leopard is the apex predator in the region. Saving it will mean that we will need to save the prey base of herbivores too and to save the prey base will mean preserving the grassland that they feed on]
•Listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
•Inhabit alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft).
•State animal of Uttarakhand and the National Heritage Animal of Pakistan
What is Cryodrakon Boreas View — 
•Paleontologists have identified a new species, named it Cryodrakon boreas, and declared that it could be one of the largest flying animals.
•With a wingspan of over 10 metres, it is believed to have flown over the heads of dinosaurs.
The reptile lived over 77 million years ago in what is western Canada today.
India’s second riverine Multi Modal terminal built at Sahibganj in Jharkhand
•This is being constructed on National Waterway-1 (River Ganga) under Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) aided by World Bank.
•The First MultiModal Terminal has been constructed at Varanasi over River Ganga.
Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system from Allahabad to Haldia was declared as National Waterway No.1
6th schedule of the constitution
•It deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
•The governor is empowered to organise and re-organise the autonomous districts.
•If there are different tribes in an autonomous district, the governor can divide the district into several autonomous regions
•Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council.
•Powers of councils: They can make laws on certain specified matters like land, forests, canal water, shifting cultivation, village administration, inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, social customs and so on. [But all such laws require the assent of the governor.]
▫️National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution Of India.
Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA)
•ARIIA considers all major indicators which are commonly used globally to rank most innovative education institutions/ universities in the world.
•More than quantity, ARIIA will focus on quality of innovations and will try to measure the real impact created by these innovations nationally and internationally
•For India to emerge as a global innovation hub, the youth of our country, especially in higher education institutions (HEIs) need to play a crucial role to create a sustainable innovation ecosystem. 
•This ecosystem will encourage, inspire and nurture young students by exposing them to new ideas and processes resulting in innovative activities in their formative years
Government e Marketplace (GeM)
•GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries, that has used technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.
[GeM aims to enhance transparency, efficiency and speed in public procurement]
•It provides the tools of e-bidding, reverse e-auction and demand aggregation to facilitate the government users, achieve the best value for their money.
24th World Energy Congress kicks off in Abu Dhabi
•Formed in 1923, the Council is the UN-accredited global energy body, representing the entire energy spectrum
•It is the World Energy Council’s global flagship event.
•It offers a unique platform for global energy leaders to explore new energy futures, critical innovation areas, and new strategies. 
 Held every three years and positioned as the flagship event of the World Energy Council, the Congress is the longest-running and most influential energy event in the world
Theme: ‘Energy for Prosperity’
Eurasian Economic Forum
•India has skipped a meeting of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which was organised by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) at Xi’an in China
•The entire event was organized to discuss and deliberate upon China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
•India’s opposition:
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, an important part of the BRI, passes through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK).
•It is an international organization for regional economic integration.
•Composition: Includes Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.[It has free movement of goods, services and labour]
A case for differential global carbon tax
•Total global emissions will need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. 
•If these targets are not met, tropical regions of the world, which are densely populated in the global South are likely to be most negatively affected because of their low altitudes and pre-existing high temperatures. 
•Burden sharing: Apart from funding their own energy transition, countries should partially support the transition for the countries at the bottom. This sharing of the burden of development should be done in a way that inverts this injustice funnel. Countries have to spend around 1.5% of their GDP
•A genuine global consensus on the mitigation of this problem.
•Both worlds need to contribute to averting this danger in their self-interest
Curriculum for Life Skills (Jeevan Kaushal)
•Designed by University Grants Commission (UGC).
•Life skills (JeevanKaushal) curriculum cover the set of human talents acquired by an individual via classroom learning or life experience that can help them to deal with problems encountered in day to day life
Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile(MPATGM) 
•It is an Indian third-generation fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile.
•Developed by DRDO.
•Incorporated with state-of-the-art Infrared Imaging Seeker along with advanced avionics.
•List of India’s Anti Tank guided missile:
1.DRDO Anti Tank Missile.
2.Amogha missile.
3.Nag missile.
4.Man-Portable Anti-tank Guided Missile (MPATGM).

Kartarpur Sahib pilgrim corridor: View — 
•The corridor – often dubbed as the “Road to Peace” – will connect Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan’s Kartarpur with Dera Baba Nanak shrine in India’s Gurdaspur district. 
•The construction of the corridor will allow visa-free access to pilgrims from India. The proposal for the corridor has been on the table since 1988, but!!
•Pakistan has agreed in principle to allow visa-free, year-long travel to the Sikh shrine.
•The gurdwara in Kartarpur stands on the bank of the Ravi, about 120 km northeast of Lahore.
•It was here that Guru Nanak assembled a Sikh community and lived for 18 years until his death in 1539.
[Pakistan is planning to charge $20 per pilgrim.
It has also not agreed to the initial number — 10,000 pilgrims that India proposed. ]
District mineral foundations(DMFs)
•They are non-profit truststo work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.
Jurisdiction: Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
Chhattisgarh became the first state in July 2019, to amend DMF rules.
•The new rule mandates the inclusion of 10 Gram Sabha members directly from mining-affected areas in the DMF Governing Council (GC).
•In Scheduled Areas, at least 50 per cent of the Gram Sabha members must be from Scheduled Tribes (ST).
Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY):
The programme is meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).
National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons
•It is a pension scheme for the Vyaparis (shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons) with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore.
•It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme
•It has a provision for minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000/- monthly on attaining the age of 60 years.
•The Central Government shall give 50 % share of the monthly contribution and remaining 50% contribution shall be made by the beneficiary
•Beneficiary is required to have an Aadhaar card and a saving bank/ Jan-dhan Account passbook only.
•He/ She should be within 18 to 40 years of age group.
•GSTIN is required only for those
with turnover above Rs. 40 lakhs
Salmonella View — 
•An infection with salmonella bacteria, commonly caused by contaminated food or water.
•MDH masalas in US have tested positive for Salmonella
•According to estimates by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Salmonella causes 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalisations and about 450 deaths in the United States every year.
•The World Health Organisation (WHO) identifies Salmonella as one of four key global causes of diarrhoeal diseases
【MDH= Mahashian(महाशय) Di Hatti:)】
Global Antimicrobial Resistance Research and Development Hub 
•Launched in May 2018 in the margins of the 71st session of the World Health Assembly, following a call from G20 Leaders in 2017
•It Supports global priority setting and evidence-based decision-making on the allocation of resources for AMR R&D through the identification of gaps, overlaps and potential for cross-sectoral collaboration and leveraging in AMR R&D.
•Secretariat: established in Berlin.
•India joins the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Research and Development Hub as a new member
Rohingya refugees
•They are an Ethnic group, mostly Muslims. They were not granted full citizenship by Myanmar.
•They were classified as “resident foreigners or associate citizens”.
•Ethnically they are much closer to Indo-Aryan people of India and Bangladesh than to the Sino-Tibetans of the Country.
•Few years ago, religious and ethnic tensions between the Rohingya Muslims and the Rakhine Buddhists (who make up the majority of the population in Myanmar) escalated into widespread, deadly rioting
•Recently, Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh refused to board buses that would have taken them to Mynamar
•A form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs). This is also referred to as germ warfare.
•Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh says bio-terrorism among new threats facing Armed Forces Medical Services of SCO countries
•The threat of bioterrorism is increasing as a result of the rise of technical capabilities, the rapid expansion of the global biotechnology industry, and the growth of loosely sophisticated networks of transnational terrorist groups that have expressed interest in bioterrorism
National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) project
•It is an ambitious counter terrorism programme.
•It will utilise technologies like Big Data and analytics to study and analyse the huge amounts of data from various intelligence and enforcement agencies to help track suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
•NATGRID is facing opposition on charges of possible violations of privacy and leakage of confidential personal information.
•It is Indo-Thailand Joint Military Exercise.
It is an annual training event which is being conducted alternatively in Thailand and India since 2006.
•2019 edition is being held in Meghalaya
It is the white water Rafting Expedition being undertaken by Kalidhar Battalion under the aegis of Battle Axe Division.
•It has been organised to commemorate the 75th Raising day of the Kalidhar Battalion.
‘Rudrashila’ takes its name from the famed Rudraprayag tributary of the Ganges River in the Mountains of Uttarakhand.
Pangong Tso lake
•Pangon lake or Pangong Tso, a 135-km long lake, located in the Himalayas at the height of approximately 4,350 m, stretches out from India to China.
•One-third of water body, its 45 km stretch, is in Indian control while the rest of the 90 km is under Chinese control.
•It is formed from Tethys geosyncline.
•It is a salt water lake.
【The Indian and Chinese armies clashed recently along the Pangong lake in Ladakh.(We even don’t know!)】
Drought Toolbox
•It’s a kind of knowledge bank that may be used by vulnerable countries, such as India, to reduce drought risk and be better prepared and effectively respond to it.
•At the ongoing 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), a Drought Toolbox has been launched
World University Rankings 2020: 16th edition
•Released by TIMES Higher Education (THE). .
•Included over 1,300 universities from 92 countries
•56 Indian institutions (up from 49 last year) made entry into the table this year, making India the fifth most-represented country in the list and the third in Asia (behind Japan and China).
•The University of Oxford retained the top position for the consecutive fourth year
•The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore topped the Indian universities on the list (although its ranking fell from the 251-300 group in 2019 to the 301-350 bracket in 2020)
【It is the first time since 2012, that an Indian university has not featured in the top 300 of the ranking.
Uniform Civil Code (UCC);- 
•It is a proposal to have a generic set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion
•Article 44 of the Constitution says that there should be a Uniform Civil Code
•Reform family law;-{by Law Commission}
:took a stand in favour of “equality ‘within communities’ b/w men & women” (personal law reform), “rather than ‘equality between’ communities” (UCC).
•A secular republic needs a common law for all citizens rather than differentiated rules based on religious practices
Jan Soochna Portal-2019
•It is the first-ever public information portal launched in Rajasthan.
•Aims to provide information about government authorities and departments suo motu to the public in the true spirit of the Right To Information Act
•The portal would ensure compliance with Section 4(2) of the RTI Act mandating the public authorities to disclose information in the public domain, so that the people need not file applications under the law to obtain information
Community Radio Stations View — 
~Community Radio is by definition relatively small and often situated in locations where basic services, like a constant supply of electricity, are lacking
•Community Radio derives its strength and popularity from community participation
•Today, there are more than 180 community radio stations across India, broadcasting in languages like Bundelkhandi, Garhwali, Awadhi and Santhali — tongues that typically find little or no space on television
[118 new Community Radio Stations to be set-up.]
Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy
•It encourages science and technology (S&T) institutions and individual scientists in the country to proactively engage in science outreach activities to connect science with the society.
•It has also been proposed to give credit to knowledge workers/scientists for individual SSR activities in their annual performance appraisal and evaluation
•When most research is being done by using taxpayers’ money, the scientific establishment has an ethical obligation of “giving back” to the society. SSR is not only about scientific impact upon society but also about the social impact upon science
•India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Groundwater crisis View — 
•Groundwater reserves are already under pressure as the global population explodes and crop production rises in lockstep.
•Extreme weather events such as drought and record rainfall — have both made worse by our heating planet — could have another long-lasting impact on how quickly reserves replenish.
•Only half of all groundwater supplies are likely to fully replenish or re-balance within the next 100 years — potentially leading to shortages in drier areas. 
•Today, India is the largest user of the groundwater in the world with almost 90% being used for drinking water and almost 60-70% for irrigation. [Current statistics also show that nearly 50% of urban water supply comes from groundwater]
Hindi Diwas(हिंदी दिवस)2019: १४ सितम्बर (September 14) View — 
•The day is a celebration of the Hindi language and its cultural heritage and values among the people of the country and abroad.
•The Constituent assembly of India adopted Hindi as the official language of the country on September 14, 1949 under Article 343.
Most spoken languages in the world
1.Mandarin (language family)~>China
2.Spanish (Spain)
3.English (United Kingdom)
•It is a movement to combat desertification and climate change which will involve the tribal community of India since they have the expertise in this field.
•The movement will ensure that tribals can earn a livelihood without causing environmental harm.
•It was launched at the COP 14 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
Collegium of Supreme Court judges
•The Collegium of judges does not figure in the Constitution.(It is the Supreme Court’s invention)
•Collegium is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges.
•Collegium also recommends the transfer of Chief Justices and other judges.
•The recent controversy over the transfer of the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court, Justice Vijaya Kamlesh Tahilramani, to the Meghalaya High Court has once again brought to the fore a long-standing debate on the functioning of the ‘Collegium’ of judges
Hindi to help unite the country
•During an event associated with the Hindi Divas, the Union Home Minister said that Hindi is the only language that can unify the country and the language needs to be promoted.
•According to Census-2011, only 60% of total Hindi-speakers speak the native Hindi dialect. Only 26% have native Hindi as their mother tongue.
•The people of non-Hindi speaking states fear that the plan to promote Hindi might make them secondary citizens and undermine the country’s integrity
•According to Article-343, Hindi (in Devanagari script) is the official language of the Union.
•Under Article-351, it is the duty of the Union to encourage the spread of the Hindi language so that it may serve as a medium of communication.
One Question 🖐️!: Would you do this without consulting Southern states like J&K ?
Package to Boost Exports and Revive Housing Sector
•Centre has announced a third set of government decisions to revive the economy. (The new package aims to boost exports and revive a housing sector)
▫️For housing sector:
•Special window to provide last-mile funding for stalled housing projects
•Funding: The government may contribute to the Rs 10,000 crore fund for the special window
▫️Measures for exports sector
•A new attractive scheme for remission of duties or taxes on export product (RoDTEP) to replace the existing Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) from January 1 next year etc.
How waived loans impact states?
•The report of an Internal Working Group (IWG), set up by RBI in February, has been released.
•The group was set up to look at, among other things, the impact of farm loan waivers on state finances.
•Farm loan waivers have dented state finances.
•In the past five years, just a handful of states have already waived three-times the amount waived by the central government in 2008-09.
International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer: September 16
•Ozone layer: Absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light which is harmful to human life and other life forms.
•It Absorbs about 97 to 99% of ultraviolet rays and maintain the ozone-oxygen cycle.
•Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform-are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).
•World Ozone Day 2019 Theme: 32 Years and Healing.
Central Adverse List
•The Centre has removed from the Central Adverse List names of few foreign nationals involved in anti-India activities
•It is a list maintained by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs.
•The list contains: Names of individuals who supported the Khalistan movement in 1980s and 90s but left India to take asylum in foreign countries.
•Names of those individuals who are suspected to have links with terrorist outfitsor have violated visa norms in their previous visit to India.
•Names of those persons who have indulged in criminal activities or have been accused of sexual crimes against children in their respective countries.
Him Vijay Exercise
•this exercise planned by India in the northeast will mainly test the war fighting abilities of the newly-raised 17 Mountain Strike Corps in Arunachal Pradesh.
• The exercise will also involve the Indian Air Force (IAF) which would provide the aerial elements for the real war-type drills. 
•Indian Armed Forces are planning to deploy their latest American weapons systems including M777 ultra-light howitzers and Chinook heavy-lift helicopters in the war games to be carried out in Arunachal Pradesh, close to borders with China. 
UN Mission in support of the Hodeidah Agreement (UNMHA)
•UN Secretary recently announced the appointment of Abhijit Guha, a retired Indian lieutenant general as the head of the UN mission in Hodeidah, Yemen.
•On 16 January 2019, the UN decided to establish United Nations Mission to support the Hodeidah Agreement (UNMHA).
•It is a special mission to oversee governorate-wide ceasefire, mine action operation and redeployment of forces
Samudra Laksamana:
•The Indian Navy and Malaysian Navy had recently participated in the bilateral exercise ‘Samudra Laksamana
Central Equipment Identity Register (CEIR) system
•This is a project undertaken by the DoT for addressing security, theft and other concerns including reprogramming of mobile handsets.
•Blocking of lost/stolen mobile phones across mobile networks thus discouraging theft of mobile phones etc.
Jaldoot’ Exhibition
•It is a travelling exhibition arranged by Regional Outreach Bureau, Pune under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. It is a Travelling Exhibition on Jalshakti Abhiyan
•It is a time-bound, mission-mode campaign that would focus on 1,592 “water-stressed” blocks in 257 districts.
•The campaign will run through citizen participationduring the monsoon season, from 1st July, 2019 to 15th September, 2019
Pulikali: View — 
•Also known as Tiger Dance, it is a folk art of Kerala, performed on the fourth day of Onam festival.
•Artists wear a tiger mask, paint their bodies like tigers and dance to the rhythm of traditional percussion instruments such as thakil, udukku and chenda

Impact of attack on Saudi Arabia’s oil facility
•Houthis, a rebel Shia group of Yemen that is backed by Iran, bombed the Abqaiq plant as well as the Khurais oil field in Saudi Arabia using drones.
•Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company, had to suspend the production of almost 6 million barrels per day (about 6 per cent of global oil supply).
•This is the largest-ever disruption in crude oil production in Saudi Arabia
•India imports 80% of the oil it consumes
•India is already trying to make up for the loss of supply from Iran after US-imposed sanctions. (After Iraq, Saudi Arabia is India’s second-largest supplier of crude oil)
【Fuel prices may rise by up to ₹5 a litre and can impact auto sector very badly 😔!】
Report on ‘hidden’ environmental, health and poverty costs.
•Food and Land use Coalition (FOLU), a collaboration of food, farming and green research groups, has released a report on ‘hidden’ environmental, health and poverty costs.
•Malnutrition leads to the largest hidden costs: Today one-third of the world’s population is malnourished; by 2030 it is expected to rise up to 50 per cent
•The current methods of food production, consumption and land use systems incur ‘hidden’ environmental, health and poverty costs estimated at almost $12 trillion a year
•If action is not taken timely the costs will rise to more than $16 trillion a year by 2050
NIRVIK scheme
•Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) has introduced ‘NIRVIK’ scheme to ease the lending process and enhance loan availability for exporters.
•Insurance cover guaranteed will cover up to 90 percent of the principal and interest.
•It mandates inspection of bank documents and records by ECGC officials for losses exceeding Rs.10 crore as against the present Rs 1crore
•The banks shall pay a premium to ECGC monthly on the principal and interest as the cover is offered for both outstandings.
•It will enhance accessibility and affordability of credit for exporters.(It will help make Indian exports competitive.)
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) View — 
•It is a NASA mission to the moon within the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) in preparation for future manned missions to the moon and beyond (Mars).
•LRO is the first mission of NASA’s `New Vision for Space Exploration’.
•Provide measurements to characterize future robotic explorers, human lunar landing sites and to derive measurements that can be used directly in support of future Lunar Human Exploration Systems
•ISRO is attempting to figure out what happened to Chandrayaan-2’s Vikram with the help of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) View — 
•India is the first country in world to develop such a document
▫️The Goals
•Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by year 2037-38.
•Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by year 2037-38.
•Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by year 2037-38.
•Recognize “cooling and related areas” as a thrust area of research under the national S&T Programme.
•Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use.
•Map the technologies available to cater the cooling requirement including passive interventions, refrigerant-based technologies and alternative technologies such as not-in-kind technologies
[India’s Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) has received appreciation from the UN on World Ozone Day.]
Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA)
•The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978.
•The Act was introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”.
•The law allows the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
•Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates
The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention “which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose”.
•Farooq Abdullah, Former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister, has been booked under the Public Safety Act (PSA).
Survey of India
•It is the National Survey and Mapping Organisation of the country under the Department of Science & Technology, is the OLDEST SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT OF THE GOVT. OF INDIA.
• It was set up in 1767 and has evolved rich traditions over the years
•Survey of India (SoI) will for the first time rely on drones to map the country.

National Recruitment Agency (NRA)
•Finance Ministry has approved the proposal for creation of a National Recruitment Agency (NRA).
•With an aim to streamline recruitment of some posts in the government along with various equivalent recruitment in public sector banks.
•A new National Recruitment Agency (NRA) will be set up to conduct the Common Eligibility Test (CET) for all various competitive examinations, in which an estimated 2.5 crore candidates appear annually.
•To reduce the burden of SSC and the IBPS, among others, from holding preliminary recruitment exams, which is an extensive exercise.
FCRA and foreign funding
•The Ministry of Home Affairs has notified new rules for those receiving foreign funding
•Every member of an NGO must now, under oath, through an affidavit, certify that they have never been involved in “diverting” foreign funds or propagating “sedition” or “advocating violent means”. [Earlier, the applicant or director-level person was to given this declaration but now all members of the NGO need to be given this declaration.]
•The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 and rules framed under it (the “FCRA” or “Act”) regulate the receipt and usage of foreign contribution by non-governmental organisations (“NGOs”) in India
Definition of foreign contribution:
It defines the term ‘foreign contribution’ to include currency, article other than gift for personal use and securities received from foreign source. 
Ambit of RTI expanded
•Supreme Court of India in its recent judgment has held that Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) “substantially” financed by the government fall within the ambit of the Right to Information Act.
•NGOs which receive considerable finances from the government or are essentially dependent on the government fall under the category of “public authority” defined in Section 2(h) of the RTI Act of 2005.
•This means that they have to disclose vital information, ranging from finances to hierarchy to decisions to functioning, to citizens who apply under RTI.
International Migrant Stock 2019
• Released by Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs
•A data of several international migrants by origin, age and sex for all countries and areas are included in the report.
•UN prepared this report with the help of population censuses, population registers and nationally representative surveys.
•India is the leading country of origin of international migrants in 2019 with a 17.5 million-strong diaspora.
[Most of the international migrants came from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal]
•After India, Migrants from Mexico makes the second largest diaspora (11.8 million), followed by China (10.7 million), Russia (10.5 million)
Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS)
•It is a one-stop payment platformfor all bills, providing an interoperable and accessible “Anytime Anywhere” bill payment service to customers across the country with certainty, reliability and safety of transactions.
[Payments through BBPS may be made using cash, transfer cheques and electronic modes]
•National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) is an umbrella organization for all retail payments system in India
Human space flight Programme
•ISRO, DRDO sign MoU to provide critical technologies for Human Space Mission.
•ISRO aims to launch its maiden Human Space Mission, Gaganyaan before the 75th anniversary of India’s independence in 2022.
•Human space flight will provide that inspiration to the youth and also the national public mainstream. It would inspire young generation into notable achievements and enable them to play their legitimate role in challenging future activities
 India will be the fourth country to launch human space mission. The Gaganyaan will not only bring about prestige to the nation but also establish India’s role as a key player in the space industry.
Electric or hydrogen cars? Why Asian economies are backing the latter
•China, Japan and South Korea have set ambitious targets to put millions of hydrogen-powered vehicles on their roads by the end of the next decade at a cost of billions of dollars
•China, far and away the world’s biggest auto market with some 28 million vehicles sold annually, is aiming for more than 1 million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in service by 2030. [That compares with just 1,500 or so now, most of which are buses.]
•Hydrogen is a clean energy source as water and heat are the only byproducts,
•It can be made from a number of sources, including methane, coal, water, even garbage
Rustom- 2:
•Rustom 2 drone is a medium-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle developed by DRDO.
•The objective of this drone is to carry out surveillance for the armed forces with an endurance of 24 hours.
5th International Ramayana Festival and ICCR
•It was organized by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) in New Delhi recently.
•Objectives: To actively participate in the formulation and implementation of •policies and programs pertaining to India’s external cultural relations.
To foster and strengthen cultural relations 
Center- 2019 International Command Exercise
Russia is holding this annual exercise. Military Forces from India, China, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan will join Russia’s Central Joint Strategic Command (JSC) for military exercises
•Train troops to conduct military operations in modern conditions and improve the interoperability of the military command and control units of the armed forces of Russia and the allied States.
Astra missile
•It is the indigenously developed Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air
•It is an all-weather, state-of-the-art missile developed by DRDO and can engage and destroy enemy aircraft at supersonic speed (1.2 Mach to 1.4 Mach) in head-on (up to 80 km) and tail-chase (up to 20 km) modes.
It can reach up to 110 km when fired from an altitude of 15 km, 44 km when launched from an altitude of eight km and 21 km when fired from sea level
•Paraquat is a toxic chemical that is widely used as an herbicide (plant killer), primarily for weed and grass control
•There is no antidote to this herbicide, the consumers of which complain of kidney, liver and lung problems
Akademik Lomonosov
It is the world’s only floating nuclear power unit.The plant was launched by Russia on May 19, 2018 at the St Petersburg shipyard.
•Recently, this floating nuclear power plant completed its 5,000-km journey along the Northern Sea Route. This has sparked fears among environmentalists over the safety of the Arctic region.
Electronic Certificates of Origin (CoO)
•Ministry of Commerce & Industry launched a common digital platform for the issuance of electronic Certificates of Origin (CoO)
•A Certificate of Origin is an instrument which establishes evidence o­n the origin of goods imported into any country
Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
•It is a large system of ocean currents that carry warm water from the tropics northwards into the North Atlantic.
•It aids in distributing heat and energy around the earth, as the warm water it carries releases heat into the atmosphere, and in absorbing and storing atmospheric carbon.
•Since the past 15 years, Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has been weakening — a development that could have dramatic consequences for [Europe and other parts of the Atlantic rim. Warming up of Indian Ocean is said to be a key driver behind this]
Zonal councils;-{statutory bodies}
↪they are only deliberative & advisory bodies.(to promote interstate cooperation and coordination)
•Union Home Minister(Chairman)
•Eastern Zonal Council↪comprising the States of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, & West Bengal.
electronic cigarette (or e-cig)
• It is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking. It works by heating up a nicotine liquid, called “juice.”
•Commerce Ministry has asked the Health Ministry to frame a law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation
•current unregulated sale of e-cigarettes is dangerous for a country like India where the number of smokers is on the decline [nicotine addiction and perpetuating smoking by making it more attractive]
AICTE’s Margadarshan and Margadarshak scheme
•Under this scheme, institutions having good accreditation record / highly performing institutions are supposed to mentor relatively newer 10 – 12 potential institutions.
•These institutions are also provided funding uptoRs. 50 lakhs (Rupees Fifty Lakhs Only) per institution over a period of three years in instalments
•Criteria for Margadarshaks are:
1.Must be a Ph.D.
2.Should be from Technical Education (Engg.) Domain
3.Min experience 20 years; Not less than 5 years in academics etc.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
•The 63rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presently going on at Vienna
•Works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.
•Seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
•169 member states — one vote per member.(debate on current issues and policies.)Meets once a year
Coal Gasification
•Coal gasification is one of the more water-intensive forms of energy production.
•Transporting gas is a lot cheaper than transporting coal.
•Help address local pollution problems.
Has greater efficiency than conventional •coal-burning because it can effectively use the gases twice:[ the coal gases are first cleansed of impurities and fired in a turbine to generate electricity. ]
•Government has awarded Lump Sum Turn Key (LSTK) contract for Coal Gasification Plant PF Talcher Fertilizers Limited to M/s Wuhuan Engineering Co. Ltd, China as a part of measures to revival closed units of Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd. (FCIL) and HFCL
Shola grasslands
•The Shola vegetation are tropical montane forests found in the Western Ghats separated by rolling grasslands in high altitudes.
•Shola grasslands consist of dwarf trees growing 25-30 feet.
•It is a stunted forest growths of diverse grass species.
•Between 1973-2014 Shola grasslands area had seen a 66.7% decline 🙃!
•The Shola forests and associated grasslands store large quantities of water on the mountain ranges, thus serving as huge `water harvesting and storage structures
•Many of the rivers in Kerala and Tamil Nadu originate from the Shola grasslands and were perennial. 
Issues in debate around setting an age limit for IVF
•74-year-old woman from Andhra Pradesh was recently recorded as the oldest in the world to give birth to twins through in-vitro fertilisation or IVF.
•Pregnancy in old age poses multiple risks — hypertension, diabetes, convulsions, bleeding, and cardiac complications to name a few.
•he womb of an older woman has to be prepared by injecting hormones for the foetus to grow for nine months. Also, a woman of that age cannot breastfeed
National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT)
•Established in November 1993 as an autonomous society under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
•Major aim of starting NIOT is to develop reliable indigenous technologies to solve the various engineering problems associated with harvesting of non-living and living resources in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), [which is about two-thirds of the land area of India]
Waste Management Accelerator for Aspiring Women Entrepreneurs (WAWE Summit 2019)
•It will be held in November-December 2019.
•Jointly organized by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and Institute of Waste Management (IIWM) at Jaipur. 
•It will be the largest gathering of young women students to promote entrepreneurship in waste management and providing alternatives to single use plastic carry bags.
Theme: Make your own bag – empowering women to take up income generation activity and entrepreneurship in waste management through making a business out of this record creating concept 【Itti badi but good:)】
Year of Artificial Intelligence:
•The state government of Telangana has decided to declare 2020 as Year of Artificial Intelligence.
•Throughout the year 2020, the state government will be running multiple programs, meetings and activities such as hackathons, master classes and other activities.
Access to Internet is a basic right: Kerala HC
•A college student from Kozhikode was recently expelled from the college hostel for using her mobile phone beyond the restricted hours.
[This was challenged in the court.]
•The petitioner contended that the internet, accessible through mobile phones or laptops, provided an avenue for the students to gather knowledge
•Kerala High Court has held that the right to have access to the Internet is part of the fundamental right to education as well as the right to privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.
•The Court has observed rightly in the sense that the hostel authorities are expected to enforce only those rules and regulations for enforcing discipline. (Enforcement of discipline shall not be by blocking the ways and means of the students to acquire knowledge.)
Anti-Defection Law;-{10th Schedule}
•The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by the 52nd Amendment Act.
•MP or MLA Is deemed to have defected if he either voluntarily resigned from his party OR/disobeyed the directives of the party leadership on a vote OR/Independent members would be disqualified if they joined a political party(within 6 months)
•The decision on question as to disqualification on ground of defection is referred to the Chairman or the Speaker of such House, and his decision is final.
•[Haryana speaker disqualifies five INLD MLAs under anti-defection law.]
Office of Profit
•If an MLA or an MP holds a government office and receives benefits from it, then that office is termed as an “office of profit”.
•A person will be disqualified if he holds an office of profit under the central or state government
•Punjab cabinet has decided to bring an ordinance to exclude the appointments of advisors to CM from the ambit of the office of profit.
•MP or MLA can be disqualified for:
a) Holding an office of profit under government of India or state government; 
b) Being of unsound mind;
c) Being an undischarged insolvent;
d) Not being an Indian citizen or for acquiring citizenship of another country
Corporate income tax View — 
•FM Nirmala Sitharaman has announced major changes in corporate income tax rates to revive growth in the broader economy.
•This has been achieved through an ordinance– the Taxation Laws (Amendment) Ordinance 2019.
•Corporate tax rate to be 22 per cent without exemptions.
•Effective corporate tax rate after surcharge and cess to be 25.17 percent
•That effective tax for new companies shall be 17.01 percent, including cess and surcharge
•Given the substantially lower rates would imply that many corporates will break even much ahead than what would have been the case with the earlier rates
•Lower corporate income tax rates and the resultant change in profitability will likely prompt companies to invest more, raising their capital expenditure (capex)
•The new corporate income tax rates in India will be lower than USA (27 percent), Japan (30.62 percent), Brazil (34 percent), Germany (30 percent) and is similar to China (25 percent) and Korea (25 percent
Stubble burning
•Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat
•More than 4500 villages in Punjab and Haryana have been declared as Zero Stubble Burning Villages during 2018 as not a single crop burning incident was reported from these villages during the year
•Stubble burning results in emission of harmful gases such carbon diaoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide along with particulate matter.
•The existing Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme must be so interpreted as to enable the States concerned to wholly or partly deny the benefit of MSP to those who continue to burn the crop residue : Supreme Court
•[As many as eight districts in Punjab and three in Haryana have been identified as contributing around 62% of the total crop burning emission]
Aditya- L1 mission
• It is India’s first solar mission.
•It will study the sun’s outer most layers, the corona and the chromospheres and collect data about coronal mass ejection, which will also yield information for space weather prediction.
•Aditya- L1 satellite will be placed in the halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the sun-earth system.
•Lagrangian points are the locations in space where the combined gravitational pull of two large masses roughly balance each other (L1,L2,L3,L4,L5)
PM Modi is honoured with the prestigious ‘Global Goalkeeper Award 2019
•The award is conferred by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
•The annual awards, in five categories, are presented to leaders and individuals for their efforts in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Gandan Tegchenling Monastery View — 
• A statue of Lord Buddha and his two disciples, installed at the historic Gandan Tegchenling Monastery in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia was recently unveiled by PM Modi.
•Gandan Tegchenling Monastery is a prominent centre of Mongolian Buddhists and a treasure house of valuable Buddhist heritage
Emergency Response Support System
•ERSS is one of the key projects of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs under Nirbhaya Fund.
•It has been designed to play a pivotal role in mitigation or preventing escalation of crime, especially against women and children.
•Citizens can send their emergency information through call, sms, email and through the 112 India mobile app
International Day of Peace 2019: 21 September
•Established in 1981 by unanimous United Nations resolution, Peace Day provides a globally shared date for all humanity to commit to Peace above all differences and to contribute to building a Culture of Peace. 
•Theme: “Climate Action for Peace”.
World’s Second Largest Coal Block
•Deaucha Panchami coal block of Birbhum Coalfield Area is World’s Second Largest Coal Block.
•Situated in West Bengal. This coal mine is the largest coal mine or coal block in Asia, due to the number of coal reserves
Recognition of Prior Learning – RPL
•RPL is a key element under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
•It Align the competencies of the unregulated sectors of the country with the National Skills Qualification Framework
•Enhance the chances of employment of individuals and provide them with more options for higher education
•Minister, Skill Development and Entrepreneurship distributes certificates to RPL trainees under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.
[More than 2 million candidates across the country have received RPL certification under the PMKVY.]
● All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) report for 2018-19 : released by the HRD ministry
•The survey collects data on several parameters like teachers, student enrolment, programmes, examination results, education finance, infrastructure, etc.
•In Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, there are now more females in the age group of 18-23 enrolling for higher education than male students.
•Female enrolment improved from 47.6% in 2017-18 to 48.6% in 2018-19.
•The gross enrolment ratio (GER) increased marginally – from 25.8 in 2017-18 to 26.3 in 2018-19.
•GER for SCs has also shown a growth from 21.8 to 23.0 and STs from 15.9 to 17.2. 
•Number of universities has grown from 903 in 2017-18 to 993 in 2018-19 and total HEIs (higher educational institutions) from 49,964 to 51,649 in the same period.
•While one-third of undergraduate students are enrolled in humanities, management seems to be a preferred stream at the postgraduate (PG) level
PACEsetter Fund programme
•Constituted by India and the USA in 2015.
It is a INR 50 crore (USD 7.9 million) fund jointly capitalized by the Governments of the Republic of India and the United States of America. 
•It is a joint fund to provide early-stage grant funding to accelerate the commercialization of innovative off-grid clean energy products, systems, and business models.
•Ministry of New and Renewable Energy awards grants to four projects in second round of PACEsetter Fund programme
Head on Generation (HOG) technology
•It is being adopted by the Indian Railways, power supply is tapped from overhead power lines and distributed to train coaches. “The power generator cars which used to make huge noise and emit fumes will no more be there
•The system runs the train’s ‘hotel load’ (the load of air conditioning, lights, fans, and pantry, etc.) by drawing electricity from the overhead electric lines through the pantograph
End on Generation (EOG) system
the electrical load (i.e. load of lights, fans and air conditioning, pantry etc. referred to as “Hotel Load”) in the coaches of Rajdhani and Shatabdi Express trains are fed from the power cars placed at either ends of the rake.
Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA)
•The PDNA tool was developed by the UN Development Group, the World Bank and the European in
•The aim was to develop and use common assessment and recovery planning approaches in post-crisis settings.
•The main goal is to assess the full extent of a disaster’s impact, define the needs for recovery, and, in so doing, serve as the basis for designing a recovery strategy and guide donors’ funding
•PDNA is the first step towards developing a holistic recovery programme that promotes equity and inclusion.
Paika Rebellion
•200-years ago in 1817, a valiant uprising of soldiers led by Buxi Jagabandhu (Bidyadhar Mohapatra) took place in Khurda of Odisha. [This is known as Paika rebellion]
•President Ram Nath Kovind to lay the foundation of a memorial dedicated to the 1817 Paika Rebellion
How a US President can be impeached?
•US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi recently announced that the House would launch an impeachment inquiry against President Donald Trump! [over his alleged efforts to pressure Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden, Trump’s potential rival in the 2020 elections]
【Election campaign has started in US with international community!】
•No US President has ever been removed as a direct result of impeachment
•The Senate has 53 Republicans, 45 Democrats and two independents who usually vote with the Democrats. Conviction of the President would require 67 votes, which cannot happen unless some Republicans vote against him
Poshan Maah(National Nutrition Month);-
•It seeks to synergise all efforts by leveraging technology & intends to take nutrition awareness at grass root level by Jan Andolan 
•being celebrated during the month of September across the Country{by MoWCD}
•POSHAN Abhiyaan : aims to ensure service delivery & interventions by use of technology
‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ campaign
•Campaign aims to improve and expand the reach of TB care services across the country, by 2022. [to eliminate tuberculosis from India]
•United Nations has marked 2030 as a global target to eliminate TB worldwide but the Government of India has made 2025 as its target to eliminate tuberculosis from the country.
•TB is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS.
•TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
•It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other sites
The highest percentage of patients who tested positive for TB and were also infected with HIV came from Nagaland (15.6 per cent), followed by Karnataka (10 per cent)
Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSGs);-
↪Is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling export & re-transfer of materials (nuclear weapons) 
•India sought membership of NSG since 2008 But(😔 China has stuck to its stand that new members should sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
•NSG member state gets⤵
↪information on nuclear matters.
↪become part of a very transparent process
↪Can act as an instrument of harmonization & coordination etc.
Quantum Supremacy
•Google researchers claim to have achieved a major milestone in computer science known as “quantum supremacy
•Quantum computers work by harnessing the properties of quantum mechanics.
•Quantum computers use logical units called quantum bits, or qubits for short, that can be put into a quantum state where they can simultaneously represent both 0 and 1.
Calculation Test
•This calculation involved checking whether the output of an algorithm for generating random numbers was truly random.
•The researchers were able to use a quantum computer to perform this complex mathematical calculation in three minutes and 20 seconds, according to the paper.【They say it would have taken Summit 3—an IBM-built machine that is the world’s most powerful commercially-available conventional computer—about 10,000 years to perform the same task
National Water Mission Awards
•The awards are given to incentivise an organisation/company through awards recognising excellence in water conservation, efficient water use and sustainable water management practices
•It is one of the eight missions launched under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) for combating the threats of global warming.
Objective s
•To conserve water.
•To minimise the wastage of the water.
•To ensure equitable distribution across the country and within States through integrated water resources management
Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM)
•EAC-PM is an independent body constituted to give advice on economic and related issues to the Government of India, specifically to the Prime Minister
•These could be either suo-motu or on reference from the Prime Minister or anyone else. It also includes attending to any other task as may be desired by the Prime Minister from time to time.
Sardar Patel National Unity Award:View — 
•It is the Highest Civilian Award for contribution to Unity and Integrity of India.
•The Award seeks to recognize notable and inspiring contributions to promote the cause of national unity and integrity and to reinforce the value of a strong and united India.
•The award will be announced on the occasion of the National Unity Day, i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Patel on 31st October.
•The Award would consist of a medal and a citation. No monetary grant or cash award would be attached to this Award.
Not more than three Awards would be given in a year.
[A notification instituting the Sardar Patel National Unity Award was recently issued by Ministry of Home Affairs.]
•It is an Indian Coast Guard Ship commissioned recently.
•It will enhance the surveillance and patrolling capabilities of Indian Coast Guard and reinforce their role as ‘Sentinels of our Seas’.
•It has been designed and built indigenously by Larsen & Toubro (L&T) at its Katupalli ship building yard in North Chennai.
ICC’s demerit point system
•ICC’s demerit points system is a player’s personal disciplinary record. They get expunged after a 24-month time period.
•When a player reaches four or more demerit points within 24 months, the demerit points are converted into suspension points leading to a player getting suspended from international cricket.
World Maritime Day 2019: September 26 
•Celebrate the maritime industry’s contribution to the global economy.
•It emphasises on the importance of maritime security, marine environment and shipping safety.
Theme: “Empowering Women in the Maritime Community”.
Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 
•It seeks to allow illegal migrants from certain minority communities in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan eligible for Indian citizenship by amending the Citizenship Act of 1955.
•It seeks to grant citizenship to people from minority communities — Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians —after 6 years of stay in India even if they do not possess any proper document. (The current requirement is 12 years of stay.)
The Bill, however, does not extend to illegal Muslim migrants
•The Bill makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship on the basis of religion. This may violate Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees the right to equality
Framework to sustain India’s 100% ODF status: (within 10 years: 2019 to 2029)
•Union Jal Shakti Ministry’s Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) has launched a 10-year national rural sanitation strategy to sustain India’s 100 per cent Open Defecation Free (ODF)
•A district-level training management unit (TMU) will be set up to provide oversight and support to gram panchayats (GPs) so that they ensure the operation and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure
•The framework also talks about state-specific strategies on menstrual hygiene management, including menstrual waste management, which may be supported under the ODF plus strategy.
74th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)
•Popularly known as the parliament of the world, where all the 193 UN member states are represented, the UNGA is the deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.
•Takes a decision on important matters such as peace and security, discusses various global issues and budgetary matters.
•The Assembly has no binding votes or veto powers like the UN Security Council
•Among the world’s 196 countries, 193 are UN member states and three nations- Palestine, the Vatican City and Taiwan are not a part of the international organization as their country status is not recognized globally due to political and religious reasons.
Unitary taxation system for MNEs
•United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in its Trade and Development Report 2019 has recommended for the adoption of a unitary taxation system for the Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs).
•The profits of MNEs are generated collectively at the group level. Hence, unitary taxation should be applied by combining it with a global minimum effective corporate tax rate on all MNE profits.
•Such an approach would simplify the global taxation system and is expected to increase tax revenues for all countries
•UNCTAD is a permanent intergovernmental body established by the United NationsGeneral Assembly in 1964.
•It is part of the UN Secretariat.
•It reports to the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, but has its own membership, leadership, and budget.
•It is also a part of the United Nations Development Group.
Reports published by UNCTAD are:
1.Trade and Development Report
2.World Investment Report
3.Technology and Innovation Report
4 Digital Economy Report
IMD’s World Digital Competitiveness ranking 2019:
•It measures the capacity and readiness of 63 economies to adopt and explore digital technologies as a key driver for economic transformation in business, government and wider society
India rose from 48th place in 2018 to 44th rank this year
•US was ranked as the world’s most digitally competitive economy, followed by Singapore in the second place
•China made a huge jump from the 30th position to the 22nd.
Indonesia also showed massive growth by rising to 56th rank from its 62nd rank in 2018
•China showed significant improvement in the knowledge factor.
•India also showed significant improvement by jumping up four places. In knowledge factor, India fared best in graduates in sciences and R&D productivity by publication.
[India has to still, however, work on enforcing contracts, mobile broadband subscribers, wireless broadband and internet users]
UN Global Climate Action Awards
•The 15 award-winning projects fall within four focus areas: Planetary Health, Climate Neutral Now, Women for Results, and Financing for Climate Friendly Investment. 
•The Awards are spearheaded by the Momentum for Change initiative at UN Climate Change.
•The UN Climate Change’s Momentum for Change initiative is implemented with the support of The Rockefeller Foundation
•It is a joint military exercise between India and Kazakhstan.
•The latest edition is scheduled to be held in Pithoragarh district, Uttarkhand from 3-15 October 2019.
•Focus: counter terrorism operation
Malabar Exercise 2019:
•23rd edition of Malabar Exercise, the trilateral maritime exercise between navies of India, Japan and the US recently began off the coast of Japan.
•Malabar 2019 exercise seeks to further strengthen India-Japan-US naval cooperation and enhance interoperability, based on shared values and principles.
Accretion Disc: View — 
•The black hole’s extreme gravity skews light emitted by different regions of the disc, producing the misshapen appearance.
• This visualization simulates the appearance of a black hole where infalling matter has collected into a thin, hot structure called an accretion disc.
•It is a new mineral that has been discovered recently inside a diamond unearthed from a mine in South Africa.
•It has been found in Earth’s Mantle (A part of Interior of the Earth) which covers 80% of earth’s volume.
Composition: It has high concentrations of niobium, potassium and the rare earth elements 
•The found single grain is dark green in colour and opaque
The idea of regional Supreme Court Benches, and ‘divisions’ of the top court
Recently VP M Venkaiah Naidu made the following suggestions;
1.Institute four regional Benches to tackle the enormous backlog of cases, and to ensure their speedy disposal.
2.The court should be split into two divisions. 
•In the early decades of the Republic, the Supreme Court of India functioned largely as a constitutional court, with some 70-80 judgments being delivered every year by Constitution Benches of five or more judges
•This number has now come down to 10-12. Due to their heavy workload, judges mostly sit in two- or three-judge Benches to dispose of all kinds of cases
•More than 65,000 cases are pending in the Supreme Court, and disposal of appeals takes many years
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
•IPCC Working Group III is meeting in India to further preparations of Sixth Assessment Report
•More than 200 experts from 65 countries will come together to start preparing a first draft of the report, which is due to be finalized in July 2021
•Comprehensive scientific assessment reports are published every 6 to 7 years; the latest, the Fifth Assessment Report, was completed in 2014, and provided the main scientific input to the Paris Agreement
Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)
•It will examine topics such as the link between consumption and behaviour and greenhouse gas emissions, and the role of innovation and technology
•It will assess mitigation options in sectors such as energy, agriculture, forestry and land use, buildings, transport and industry
Ban on export of onion
•Banned exports of all varieties of onion.
•Imposed stock limits on onion traders to facilitate release of stocks and prevent hoarding by traders
•Retail traders across the country will now be able to stock only up to 100 quintals of onion while wholesale traders will be allowed to stock up to 500 quinta
‘Industry 4.0’
•Commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution, it is a name given to the current trend of automation, interconnectivity and data exchange in manufacturing technologies to increase productivity.
•Industry 4.0 is a complex Cyber-Physical Systems which synergizes production with digital technologies, the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data & Analytics, Machine Learning and Cloud Computing
•Industrial Revolution 4.0 can help in transforming India by:
1.Alleviating poverty.
2.Better and low-cost healthcare.
3.Enhancing farmer’s income.
4.Providing new technology and equipment to farmers.
5.Strengthening infrastructure, improving connectivity.
6.Improve ease of living and ease of doing business.
Climate Vulnerability Map of India
•For preparing communities and people to meet the challenge arising out of climate changes, a pan India climate vulnerability assessment map is being developed
•The map is being developed under a joint project of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
•The atlas is expected to be ready by the middle of 2020.
•Addressing vulnerability can help reduce risk to climate change. It also helps in identifying what makes a state or district vulnerable to climate change.
The ‘right to be forgotten’ on the Internet
•Recently, the European Union’s highest court ruled that an online privacy rule known as the ‘right to be forgotten’ under European law would not apply beyond the borders of EU member states
•The right empowers individuals to ask organisations to delete their personal data
•ECJ ruled in favour of the search engine giant Google, which was contesting a French regulatory authority’s order to have web addresses removed from its global database
INS Vikramaditya
•It is a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier.
In service since 2013.
•Originally built as Bakuand commissioned in 1987, the carrier served with the Soviet Navy and later with the Russian Navy (as Admiral Gorshkov) before being decommissioned in 1996
Saraswati Samman is the annual award 
•given to an outstanding literary work in any Indian language mentioned in Schedule VIII of the Constitution and published in 10 years preceding the specified award year.
•Significance: It is the highest recognition in the field of Indian literature in the country and carries a citation, a plaque and award money of ₹15 lakh.
•The award is presented by the KK Birla Foundation,
INS Nilgiri
•Navy’s first new stealth frigate, INS ‘Nilgiri’.
•It is the first ship of Project17A.
Project 17A frigates is a design derivative of the Shivalik class stealth frigates with much more advanced stealth features and indigenous weapons and sensors
•In Telugu, ‘Bathukamma’ means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’.
•It is the state festival of Telangana
•Telangana government recently celebrated the eagerly awaited ‘Festival of Flowers’ (Bathukamma) for which the State is known.
•The festival was traditionally celebrated by women across the state.
Galo community
•At about 1.5 lakh people, the Galos are one of the 26 major communities of Arunachal Pradesh.
•The Galos belong to the Tani group inhabiting Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, besides Tibet.
Mopinis the main festival in Galos which is celebrated for the prosperity of the villages
•The Galos perform Popir dance
Asteroid named after Pandit Jasraj
•The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has named an asteroid/minor planet, discovered in 2006, after Indian classical singer Pandit Jasraj.
• He is the first Indian to receive this honour
•Pandit Jasraj: He is an exponent of Indian classical vocal music. 
•He is the recipient of numerous awards, honours, and titles, including the prestigious Padma Vibhushan and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award.

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