September “Quiz Revision”2018

‚óŹUnconventional‚ÄĚ reservoirs ‚Ü™can cost-effectively produce gas only by using a special stimulation technique, like hydraulic fracturing,( because the gas is highly dispersed in the rock, rather than occurring in a concentrated underground location)
‚óŹshale gas from a well;- ‚Ü™over a period of time, the usage of water dramatically increases for extracting the same amount of shale gas from a well.

‚óŹSirarakhong chilli ( MANIPUR ) ;-  ‚Ü™it is famous among the locals for its vibrant colour & distinct taste
↪State Horticultural Department, Manipur is planning to lobby for the chilli to obtain a GI tag.

‚óŹAtal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA);-{launched by MoHRD}
↪to systematically rank education institutions & universities primarily on innovation related indicators
‚ÄĘIdea to Entrepreneurship(Indicator) having 54% Weightage.
 ‚óŹ Nilgiri tahr;-{an endangered mountain goat} ‚Ü™Is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills & the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu & Kerala in Southern India
‚ÄĘIUCN status- Endangered
‚ÄĘIt is the State animal of Tamil Nadu.

‚óŹHigh seas‚Ü™ refer to the open ocean which is not within the territorial waters or jurisdiction of any particular States.   ‚Ü™these zones (EEZs) are usually within 370km of a country‚Äôs coastline.
‚Ü™these waters (high seas) cover about 45% of the Earth’s surface.

‚óŹInternational Space Station (ISS);- ‚Ü™Is a space station, or a habitable Artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
‚Ü™It serves as a microgravity & space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology etc. ‚Ü™ISS is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems & equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars ‚ÄĘInternational Space Station travels at a brisk 17,100 miles per hour. [That means it orbits Earth every 90 minutes.]

‚óŹPublic Credit Registry(PCR);- ‚Ü™Is an information repository that collates all loan information of individuals & corporate borrowers ‚Ü™It can also address bad loan problem staring at banks
‚ÄĘRBI had formed a high-level task force on public credit registry (PCR) for India.

‚óŹItmad-ud-Daulah;-{ Nur Jahan‚Äôs father} ‚Ü™The tomb of Itmad-ud-Daulah is the first tomb in India that is entirely made of marble ‚Ü™In 1617, gold & silver coins, which bore her name opposite that of Jahangir, started circulating.

‚óŹ Mid-ocean ridge;- ‚Ü™ is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics. It consists of various mountains linked in chains, ‚Ü™At more than 70,000kms in length, the mid-oceanic ridges form the longest mountain-chain on the surface of the earth. ‚ÄĘHydrothermal vents‚Ü™ are volcanic systems found along mid-ocean ridges ‚Äď places where new sea-floor is created by the upwelling of magma.

‚óŹSpring population across the Himalayas‚§Ķ ‚Ü™Sikkim has the largest percentage(%) of villages that report having springs ‚Ü™Meghalaya has the largest number of villages that report having springs
‚óŹ’Inventory & Revival of Springs in the Himalayas for Water Security’Report;-{by NITI Aayog}
‚Ü™Nearly 30% of springs crucial to water security of people are drying & 50% have reported reduced discharge.  ‚ÄĘ’Himalaya Calling’‚Ü™An awareness to action campaign as people’s movement.
‚óŹWatershed is a unit of land where the rain that falls drains out through a common point.
↪watershed concept only accounts for surface water movement over slopes, ↪while movement of spring water which is groundwater(determined by underlying geology)
‚óŹHimalayas spread across 8 countries‚§Ķ ‚Ü™Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, & China, Afghanistan,  Myanmar, Pakistan.
‚ÄĘand 10 Indian states‚§Ķ
‚Ü™Including Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura & two partial hill States ‚Äď Assam & West Bengal

‚óŹRemotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS);-(commonly known as drones) ‚Ü™are a fast-growing sector in aviation, being used for both commercial & recreational purposes ‚Ü™RPAs will be classified on the basis of their maximum take-off weight,like‚§Ķ
1)Nano (Not more than 250 gm),               (ii) micro (b/w 250 gm & 2kg)
↪Restricting the operation of drones to daylight only.

‚óŹKAZ-IND 2018;- ‚Ü™Is a joint army exercise b/w India & Kazakhsta

‚óŹRegionalism ‚Ü™ It implies the love for a particular region or state in preference to the country as a whole.
‚ÄĘCommunalism‚Ü™ means love for one‚Äôs religious community in preference to the nation.
‚ÄĘCasteism ‚Ü™ implies love for one‚Äôs own caste-group in preference to the general national.
‚ÄĘLinguism ‚Ü™ means love for one‚Äôs language & hatred towards other language.

‚óŹSyrian Idlib province;-{ borders with Turkey}

‚óŹGM mustard has mainly two genes (‚ÄėBarnase‚Äô & ‚ÄėBarstar‚Äô) that allow for cross-pollination & hybridisation in mustard ‚Ü™GM mustard was developed by scientists at Delhi University(DU) & project was part-funded by the Department of Biotechnology, Science Ministry.

‚óŹMajuli Island;-{Is a fast-disappearing island. due to regular floods in Brahmaputra}
↪It is the cultural heritage centre of Vaishnavite culture of Assam

‚óŹ Sattriya dance;-

↪ was introduced in the 15th century A.D by saint as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith . ↪It is a dance-drama performance art with origins in the Krishna-centered Vaishnavism monasteries of Assam.

‚óŹ Section 377(of IPC);-
↪first challenged(in 2001) by NGO in Delhi High Court by filing a lawsuit to allow homosexual relations b/w consenting adults.

‚óŹTelangana struggle ‚Ü™seeds were sown in 1955 when the recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission to retain Hyderabad as a separate State went unheeded

↪first time was in 1946 & second in 1978
And third in 8 NOV 2016

‚óŹNational Register of Citizens(NRC);-{list of Indian citizens of Assam}‚Ü™It was first prepared in 1951.

‚óŹCOMCASA(Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement);-
↪Is one of the four foundational agreements that U.S. signs with allies & close partners to facilitate interoperability b/w militaries & sale of high end technology
↪this agreement would allow interoperability of India & US equipment (Is valid for a period 10 years).

‚óŹCarnegie Endowment for International Peace;- ‚Ü™Is a unique global network to advance peace through analysis & development of fresh policy ideas & direct engagement, collaboration with decision makers in govt. ‚ÄĘHave research centers in ‚§Ķ Russia, China, Europe,Middle East(West Asia), India,& US.

‚óŹLegislative councils in states;- ‚Ü™ resolution must be passed by state assembly by a special majority ‚Ü™Can be passed without amendment of Constitution by simple majority. ‚óŹStates have bicameral legislatures‚§Ķ ‚ÄĘAndhra pradesh & Telangana ‚ÄĘUP & Bihar ‚ÄĘKarnataka & Maharashtra ‚ÄĘJ&K ( BATU-MaJaKa)

‚óŹ‚ÄėRainbow flag‚Äô ‚Äď a symbol of the LGBT rights movement;- ‚ÄĘArtist Gilbert Baker(gay man) designed first rainbow flag in 1978 ‚Ü™he adopted eight colors for the stripes, each color with its own meaning (hot pink for sex,green for nature..) ‚ÄĘHowever, because of production issues, the pink & turquoise stripes were removed and indigo was replaced by basic “blue” ‚Ü™Now have only six-striped flag (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet) ‚Ü™Today Blue is a visible stripe on the most common variant of the ‚Äėrainbow flag’.

‚óŹThere are four ‚Äėfoundational agreements‚Äô that the USA enters into with its defence partners;-
1)Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement
2)General Security Of Military Information Agreement
3)Communications and Information Security Memorandum of Agreement
INDIA & US signed above three⬆
4)Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement.

‚óŹSLINEX;-{SL-IN-EXercise} ‚Ü™Is a bilateral naval exercise between India and Sri-lanka.

‚óŹMinuscule Karen community;- ‚Ü™Karens migrated some ninety years ago from “Myanmar” ‚Ü™Webi is one of 12 villages in Middle & North Andamans where they lives.

‚óŹLeptospirosis;-  ‚Ü™A bacterial disease spread through the urine of infected animals(neglected tropical disease).

‚óŹCharter of Patient Rights;-{by MoH&FW} ‚Ü™Rights recently included‚§Ķ ‚ÄĘNon-discrimination ‚ÄĘSafety & quality care according to standards ‚ÄĘChoose alternative treatment options if available ‚ÄĘRight to protection for patients involved in clinical trials ‚ÄĘ second opinion etc.

‚óŹWootz steel or Damascus steel;- ‚Ü™regarded as one of the wonders of the ancient world ‚Ü™‚ÄėWootz‚Äô is derived from the word ‚ÄėUrukh‚Äô which belongs to the language “Tamil” ‚Ü™Way back in the 6th century BC, this finest of alloys being made was in the Chera Kingdom of Tamil Nadu ‚Ü™alloy is made by hammering porous iron while it is hot.

‚óŹOcean Cleanup;- ‚Ü™Is a non-profit organization,  ‚Ü™to developing advanced technologies to rid the world‚Äôs oceans of plastic ‚ÄĘOcean Cleanup is developing a passive system, moving with the currents ‚Äď just like the plastic ‚Äď to catch it.

‚óŹDifference b/w President & Governor pardoning power;- ‚ÄĘOnly President can grant pardon in Court Martial cases (not by Governor) ‚ÄĘPresident can grant pardon in all cases including sentence of death BUT Governor can suspend or commute a death sentence(can’t pardon death sentence) ‚óŹGovernor‚Äôs judicial powers Apart from pardoning powers;- ‚Ü™ Governor being consulted by the President while appointing the judges of concerned state high court ‚Ü™He also appoints district judges, persons of judicial service.

‚óŹPondicherry shark;- ‚Ü™spotted in the East Godavari River  ‚Ü™IUCN has listed Pondicherry shark as ‘Critically Endangered’.

‚óŹInternational Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID);-{ established in 1950} ‚Ü™Is a NGO in the field of irrigation, drainage, & flood management ‚Ü™It is affiliated to UNESCO.& India is not member  ‚Ü™main mission is to promote ‚ÄėSustainable agriculture water management‚Äô to achieve ‚ÄėWater secure world free of poverty & hunger through sustainable rural development.

‚óŹDoctrine of Progressive Realisation of Rights‚ÄĚ;-
‚Ü™ to guard against future attempts to reintroduce that part of Section 377 of IPC which had made the entire LGBTQ community ‚ÄúUnconvicted Felons‚ÄĚ without the basic rights of a citizen for over a century.

‚óŹAtmospheric Chemical Disequilibrium;- ‚Ü™to detect the traces of Life(Detection of Extra-terrestrial life) ‚Ü™if all life on Earth disappeared tomorrow, the many gases which make up our atmosphere would undergo natural chemical reactions.

‚óŹJames Webb Space Telescope ;-
↪Is a successor to Hubble Space Telescope
↪It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang
‚ÄĘ It is an international collaboration b/w NASA and European Space Agency & Canadian Space Agency

‚óŹKourou Spaceport;- ‚Ü™Is a coastal town in north-central French Guiana.  ‚ÄĘwhere from several European Space Agency satellites are launched ‚óŹAeolus;-{launched by European Space Agency}
↪will be the first system to gather wind information all across the globe,(from the ground up to 30km in altitude) ↪It will do this by firing a powerful ultraviolet laser down into the atmosphere.

‚óŹInternational Whaling Commission;- ‚Ü™IWC already recognises two whaling sanctuaries ‚ÄďIn‚§Ķ
‚ÄĘIndian Ocean &
‚ÄĘSouthern Ocean around Antarctica
↪proposal to create a whale sanctuary in the South Atlantic Ocean has been defeated.

‚óŹAravalli range;- ‚Ü™Spread over an area of 692 km,  ‚Ü™Cover states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi & Haryana.

‚óŹCrimes;- ‚ÄĘWar crimes‚Ü™ refers to serious breaches of international humanitarian law
‚ÄĘCrimes against Humanity‚Ü™wilfully causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health{like murder, extermination, rape, persecution etc.}
‚ÄĘGenocide‚Ü™ represent serious violations of the right to life
‚óŹRome Statute or International Criminal Court Statute;- ‚Ü™is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC)

‚óŹForeign portfolio investment (FPI);-  ‚Ü™It consists of securities & other financial assets passively held by foreign investors ‚Ü™Is part of a country‚Äôs capital account & shown on its balance of payments (BOP)
‚ÄĘFPI is more liquid & less risky than FDI {As govt. control on FPI is more than FDI}

‚óŹMILEX 18 exercise;- ‚Ü™Is a BIMSTEC‚Äôs first joint military exercise,  ‚Ü™to help constituent nations plan & conduct “Counter terrorist operations”.

14th “QUIZ R”
‚óŹPrice Support Scheme (PSS);- ‚Ü™With objectives to provide remunerative prices to growers for their produce with a view to encourage higher investment & production.  ‚Ü™for procurement of oil seeds [this includes groundnuts and copra, pulses & cotton ].

‚óŹPradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan‚ÄĚ (PM-AASHA);- ‚Ü™Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in Budget ¬įScheme comprises three sub-schemes‚§Ķ
‚ÄĘPrice Support Scheme(PSS)‚Ü™physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds & Copra will be done with proactive role of state govt.
‚ÄĘPrice Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)‚Ü™it is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which ‘MSP’ is notified
‚ÄĘPilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS)‚Ü™For oilseeds, states will roll out PPSS on pilot basis in selected districts for involving participation of private stockiest.
‚öôpulses can be procured Only under “Price Support Scheme”(PSS).

‚óŹElephant birds;- ‚Ü™were once a common sight on Madagascar{went extinct about a thousand years ago }
↪they weighed at least half a tonne, stood at around 3m tall ↪Humans seem to have coexisted with elephant birds.

‚óŹIndia State-level Disease Burden Initiative report;- ‚Ü™Is prepared jointly by
1)Indian Council of Medical Research
2)Public Health Foundation of India
3)Institute for Health Metrics & Evaluation
4)Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
‚Ü™Indians have registered a 50% increase in the prevalence of ischemic heart disease & stroke over period from 1990 to 2016 ‚Ü™highest rate of increase in lifestyle diseases such as diabetes & ischemic heart disease is in the less developed states of India   ‚ÄĘIndia‚Äôs contribution to global suicide deaths increased from 25.3% in 1990 to 36.6% in 2016 among women [from 18.7% to 24.3% among men].

15th sep “QUIZ R”
‚óŹEl Ni√Īo/Southern Oscillation;- ‚Ü™is a natural event that involves fluctuating ocean surface temperatures in the Pacific.     ‚ÄĘlast El Ni√Īo occurred in 2015-16.

‚óŹICESat- 2 mission           ;-{by NASA} ‚Ü™will measure the average annual elevation change of land ice covering Greenland & Antarctica.

‚óŹC40 initiative;- ‚Ü™It is a network of the world‚Äôs megacities committed to addressing climate change.
‚ÄĘThese are the six Indian cities‚§Ķ ¬įDelhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru & Jaipur.
‚óŹFungi‚§Ķ ‚ÄĘFungi are in a kingdom of their own but are closer to animals than plants.
‚ÄĘMany fungi are free-living in soil or water; others form parasitic or symbiotic relationships with plants or animals.  ‚ÄĘFungi can be used to turn crop waste into bioethanol. ‚öôOnly 56 types of fungi have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List.

‚óŹNavtej Singh Johar v. Union of India‚Äô case;- ‚Ü™Is related to Section 377 of IPC.

16th holiday

17th sep  “QUIZ R”
‚óŹLikir ;-{a Village about 50kms from Leh} ‚Ü™It is also known for its pottery, a craft that is believed to have come from Tibet.

‚óŹKutiyattam;-  ‚Ü™practised in the province of Kerala ‚Ü™is one of India‚Äôs oldest living theatrical traditions.(Originating more than 2,000 years ago).

‚óŹCharminar;-{located in Hyderabad} ‚Ü™Is a massive arch built by “Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah”, (in 1591).
↪Is an impressive square monument with four minarets.
‚ÄĘIts upper floor has a mosque, while the lower floor was originally used as madrassa

‚óŹTosa Maidan;- ‚Ü™Is meadow in khag tehsil of Budgam district of J&K.
↪Having once been a site of the Army’s artillery practice.
↪Tosa Maidan pastures once hosted Mughal entourages complete with horses and elephants that entered the Kashmir Valley from Poonch.

‚óŹRazakars;- ‚Ü™were a private militia organised by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Osman Ali Khan and resist the “integration of Hyderabad State” into the Dominion of India.

18th sep “QUIZ R”
‚óŹDamocles‚Äô gauge;- ‚Ü™Is used to measure “Risk of exchange rate crises”.
‚ÄĘScore above 100 suggests a country is vulnerable to an exchange rate crisis in the next 12 months
‚ÄĘIndia‚Äôs Damocles score stood at 25.& Pak(136).
‚óŹIndia became 69th member of “European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)”.
‚ÄĘIndia is also a member of “International Whaling Commission”.
‚ÄĘIndia is not a member of “Rome Statute”.

‚óŹMPLADS ;-(Scheme) ‚Ü™allots ‚āĻ5 crore per year to each Member of Parliament (MP) to be spent on projects.  ‚ÄĘscheme is funded & administered by‚§Ķ Union Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI).

‚óŹNovaSAR satellite;-{from UK} ‚Ü™has the ability to take pictures of the surface of the Earth in every kind of weather, day or night [Intended to Make HD movies of the Earth‚Äôs surface].

‚óŹAbul Hasan;- ‚Ü™he was the Indian born son of a Turkish immigrant Poet.
↪His poetry was essentially Indian in sentiment though he followed Persian models in technique.
‚Ü™he created a new style of Persian which came to be known as ‚ÄėSabaq-i Hindi‚Äô or Indian style
—& Google is showing ” Abul Hasan is a Bangladeshi cricketer”ūüėÄ.

‚óŹMasala bonds;- ‚Ü™are bonds issued outside India but denominated in Indian Rupees.
‚ÄĘInternational Finance Corporation was first to issue a ‚ÄėGreen Masala Bond‚Äô,( to address climate change in India).
‚óŹCurrent account‚Ü™records exports & imports in goods and services & transfer payments
‚óŹCapital account‚Ü™ records all international purchases & sales of assets such as money, stocks, bonds etc.

‚óŹComposite Water Management Index;-{by NITI Aayog}
↪Nearly 50%(60Cr) of India’s population faces high levels of water stress.
↪21- cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai & Hyderabad will run out of groundwater by 2020.
↪If unaddressed, the water crisis will cause upto a 6% loss in the country’s GDP by 2050.

‚óŹIndia share borders‚§Ķ  ‚ÄĘBangladesh(highest)‚Ü™4096Km     ‚ÄĘAfghanistan(lowest)‚Ü™106km .

‚óŹWorld‚Äôs first ‚ÄėState of the World‚Äôs Fungi Report‚Äô ;-{published recently by Kew Royal Botanical Gardens}
↪report revealing how important fungi are to all life on Earth.

‚óŹIrula tribe;- ‚Ü™are an Adivasi group inhabiting the area of the Nilgiri mountains (in the states of Tamil Nadu & Kerala). ‚Ü™their skills(intimate knowledge of snakes) form an important but nearly invisible part of healthcare system in India.

‚óŹESA‚Äôs Solar Orbiter (SolO);- ‚Ü™is intended to perform detailed measurements of the inner heliosphere and nascent solar wind, & perform close observations of the polar regions of the Sun.  ‚Ü™Will make very similar measurements to Parker  ‚ÄĘSolO is going to fly to within 43 million km of the solar surface.[ Parker will do it by going even closer than SolO, to within 7 million km of the solar surface].

‚óŹRemoveDebris project ;- ‚Ü™plan is to test the efficacy of several ADR technologies on mock targets in low Earth orbit ‚ÄĘKessler Syndrome‚Ü™ It is a scenario where two colliding objects in space generate more debris which then cause a chain reaction of collisions in low Earth orbit.  ‚óŹISRO launched a space technology incubation centre in Tripura capital Agartala on Tuesday.
↪It is the first of six such centres planned nationally to build capacity in new locations [others are Jalandhar, Bhubaneswar, Tiruchi, Nagpur & Indore].

‚óŹphrase ‚ÄúAd hoc issue publics”;- ‚Ü™formation of selective channels centred on a particular topic (Use of #hashtags have become a popular and efficient way of marshalling & deploying public opinion).

‚óŹLocations –          ‚ÄĘCape Horn‚Ü™ southern Chile         ‚ÄĘCape Leeuwin‚Ü™W Australia          ‚ÄĘCape of Good Hope‚Ü™S Africa

‚óŹHornbills in India;- ‚Ü™India has nine hornbill species, of which four are found in the Western Ghats [& north-eastern region has 5 species] ‚ÄĘNo hornbill (In India) is critically endangered [narcondam hornbill & rufous-necked hornbill are considered endangered].

‚óŹGlobal Multidimensional Poverty Index ;-(OPHI) & UNDP 
‚Ü™was developed in 2010 by Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) & UNDP  ‚Ü™It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index  ‚ÄĘDimension‚§Ķ    ¬įHealth      ¬įEducation      ¬įLiving       ¬įStandards .

‚óŹSamsher Singh v. State of Punjab (1974);-‚Ü™was related to “Discretionary powers of the Governor”. [Governor may use(discretionary powers) only ‚Äúin harmony with his Council of Ministers]
‚óŹ Article 370;-‚Ü™President should first get the permission of the ‚ÄėConstituent Assembly of State of J&K‚Äô before declaring Article 370 null and void. ūüôŹ

‚óŹPoint Nemo;-  ‚Ü™most remote place on earth (in Southern Pacific Ocean).

‚óŹNational Technical Board on Nutrition;- ‚Ü™India‚Äôs top nutrition panel (set up by Union MoW&CD)
‚ÄĘChaired by A member of NITI Aayog.

‚óŹA person shall be disqualified for being elected as member of Parliament;-{as per the constitution}
1)if he holds any office of profit under the Union or a state government
2)if he is so disqualified under any law made by Parliament.

‚óŹSilver Tips Imperial ;-
↪Is the most expensive tea ever produced in India(Darjeeling, West Bengal)
‚Ü™it‚Äôs only plucked by expert pickers from world‚Äôs first biodynamic tea farm on clear, full-moon nights when the planets align to produce optimal harvest conditions.  ‚Ü™After 20:00 when the moon is at its brightest, some 80 to 100 specially trained tea-pickers take to the hills to quickly pluck two leaves and place them in a large woven basket strapped around their heads. ‚Ü™If the sunlight touches the leaves, it is thought to alter the tea‚Äôs aroma and consistency, so workers must race to finish the harvest by midnight.

‚óŹIndia‚Äôs 100th airport;-{1st in Sikkim} ‚Ü™Pakyong, Sikkim

27th sep “QUIZ R”
‚óŹDecriminalisation of politics;- Court‚Ü™ said Parliament should frame a law that disqualify candidates,(who are facing serious criminal cases against them) ‚ÄĘSection 8 RPA,1951 ‚Ü™disqualifies a person convicted with a sentence of two years or more from contesting elections.

‚óŹState of Working India 2018;-{released by  Centre for Sustainable Employment}
‚Ü™With higher growth rates not having translated into more jobs ‚Ü™1970s and 80s, when GDP growth was around 3-4%, employment growth was about 2% ‚Ü™Currently, the ratio of GDP growth to employment growth is less than 0.1.‚ÄĚ [means that a 10% increase in GDP results in a less than 1% increase in employment].

‚óŹPrison reforms;- ‚Ü™Supreme Court formed a Committee on Prison Reforms ‚Ü™to look & tackle into the problems in jails
‚ÄĘNHRC report on prisoners;- ¬įprisoners cut off from family had 50% more chance of committing suicide than those outside ¬įAverage suicide rate in prisons (16.9/1lakh) is over 50% more than in normal conditions ¬į33% vacancy of prison officials still lies vacant.

‚óŹNational Digital Communications Policy-2018;-
↪to digitally empowered economy & society by fulfilling information & communications needs of citizens
↪by Ensuring Digital Sovereignty &
↪Provide universal broadband connectivity at 50 Mbps to every citizen etc.
↪Provide 1 Gbps connectivity to all Gram Panchayats by 2020 and 10 Gbps by 2022.
↪Expand Internet of Technology ecosystem to 5 billion connected devices.

‚óŹICT Development Index (IDI);-{published by International Telecommunications Union(ITU)}
↪Is used to monitor & compare developments in information and communication technology (ICT) between countries and over time.

‚óŹEcological succession;- ‚Ü™Is the process by which structure of a biological community evolves over time. ‚ÄĘThere are two different types of succession 1)Primary succession ‚Ü™occurs in essentially lifeless areas‚ÄĒregions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier.
2) Secondary succession‚Ü™ occurs in areas where a community that previously existed has been removed(follows a major disturbance, such as a fire or a flood).

‚óŹcocoa plant;- ‚Ü™delicate plant behind chocolate needs humid tropical climates & shades of rainforests
‚ÄĘIn India, it is mainly cultivated in ” South Indian states”.

‚óŹSasthamkotta lake
‚ÄĘSurinsar-Mansar lakes
‚ÄĘVembanad-Kol wetland
Are Indian “Ramsar site” designated as Wetlands of International importance under Ramsar Convention.

‚óŹ#LooReview Campaign;-{by Mo Housing & Urban Affairs, under SBM} ‚Ü™It is aimed to encourage all local guides in India to rate and review public toilets on “Google” Maps.

‚óŹGolden Globe Race (GGR);- ‚Ü™Is a boat race. 
  ‚Ü™uniqueness of the race is that boat designs & technology newer than 1968 is not permitted.

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