●United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Report on Zoonotic Diseases
•According to a report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), about 60% of known infectious diseases in humans and 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic
•The report was released on 6th July 2020, observed as ‘World Zoonoses Day
•Zoonotic Disease is a disease that passes into the human population from an animal source directly or through an intermediary species
•The report is one of the first to focus on the environmental side of the zoonotic dimension of disease outbreaks during the Covid-19.
•There is an urgency for adoption of sustainable methods of food production and to reduce dependence on intensive systems to preserve health and ecosystems
•One Health Approach: One Health is a multisectoral and transdisciplinary approach with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes by recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment.
•It aids a coordinated response to future pandemics and is a key to zoonoses risk reduction and control.
•Expanding Scientific Enquiry: This is a crucial element of AMR containment efforts since waste from intensive farms using antimicrobials paves way for AMR determinants (e.g. antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria) in the environment.
Strengthening Monitoring: It would help in regulating practices associated with zoonotic diseases.
•Sustainable Land Management Practices: It would help in developing alternatives for food security and livelihoods that do not rely on the destruction of habitats and biodiversity.
•It would also enhance sustainable co-existence of agriculture and wildlife
International Livestock Research Institute
•It is an international agricultural research institute formed in 1994 through the merger of the International Livestock Centre for Africa and the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases situated in Nairobi, Kenya.
•It focuses on building sustainable livestock pathways out of poverty in low-income countries.
•It works with partners worldwide to help poor people keep their farm animals alive and productive and find profitable markets for their animal products.
•Headquarters: Nairobi, Kenya