UPSC IAS Prelims_22

●Human Microbiome;-
↪human body carries diverse communities of microorganisms, which are mainly bacterial. These are referred to as “human microbiome” 【may include Micro-organism such as Fungi,Archaea,Bacteria and Protists,Viruses etc.】
↪these organisms play a key role in many aspects like producing essential vitamins, maintaining immune systems etc.
◆Pune hosted an international conference on microbiome research — a field of study that is still in its infancy in India
●Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana;-{launched in 2015}
↪scheme’s objective is to refinance collateral-free loans given by lenders to small borrowers (There are three types of loans under PMMY⤵
•Shishu (up to ₹50,000)
•Kishore (from ₹50,001 to ₹5 lakh)
•Tarun (from ₹500,001 to ₹10 lakh)
●ZSI(Zoological Survey of India)report on A&N Islands fauna;-
•Islands comprising only 0.25% of India’s geographical area
•Is home of more than 10% of the country’s fauna species(11,009)
●Prompt Corrective Action (PCA);-
↪RBI has issued PCA framework to maintain sound financial health of banks.
↪It facilitates banks in breach of risk thresholds for identified areas of monitoring(capital, asset quality etc.)
• It can even cap a bank’s lending limit to one entity or sector
●Huyen Langlon;-
↪Is a traditional Martial art form of the state of Manipur
●Intense Tropical Cyclones like Typhoon & Hurricane;-
↪are most likely found in “Warm Temperate Eastern Margin Climate”
●Indian Systems of Medicine(ISM);-
↪Is a holistic & individualized having Preventive ,Curative ,Mitigative ,Recuperative and Rehabilitative
•Preventive Aspect of Ayurveda;-
↪is called Svasth-Vritta and includes personal hygiene, daily & seasonal regimens
•Curative treatment aspect of Ayurveda;-
↪Consist of Aushadhi(drugs) ,Ahara(diet) & Vihara(life style)
●National Productivity Council(NPC);-
↪Is a national level autonomous organization under the administrative control of “Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion to promote productivity culture in india
↪It is a tri-partite non-profit organization with equal representation from the Government, Employers and Workers’ organization
●Hard Currency;-
↪It is the international currency in which the highest faith is shown and is needed by every economy [like US $ ,Euro €]
●Maximum number of Immigrants;-{as per census 2011}
•Maharashtra stands at the top of list with 2.3 Millions nets migrants followed by Delhi(1.7Millions) ,Gujarat(0.68 million) &Haryana(0.67 million)
●Historical Materialism;-
↪Is a theory that centres on the  economic variables in explaining the non-economic phenomenon
↪Was a research programme of “Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
●Ilbert Bill Controversy(1883);-
↪was a high watermark in the history of indian national movement
↪was related to abolish discrimination in Judiciary
●Pravasi Kaushal vikash Yojana;-
↪It is aimed at training & certification of “Indian workforce keen on Overseas employment”
●National Mission on Libraries(NML);-
↪It will create a national virtual libraries of india to facilitate a comprehensive data base on ‘digital’ resources
●Governments E-Payments Adoption Ranking(GEAR)-2018;-{released by VISA}
↪Ranks governments by quantifying their e- payment capabilities based on various indicators
•VISA↪Is a global leader in payments technology
◆India is ranked 28th among 73 countries
●Narayana Guru;-
↪at the start of the 20th CE, people in the “Ezhava community in Kerala” were led by him to change their social practices
●American Civil war(1961-65) gave the first major boost to modern industries in india
↪disease occurs in tropical as well as temperate climatic regions
↪Human is the only known reservoir of infection
●India has become ‘Net Exporter of Electricity during 2016-17
●Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha(1929);-{founded by ‘Sahajanand Saraswati}
↪to mobilise peasant grievances against the Zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus the farmer’ movement in India
●ILO convention-189;-
↪Mainly aims to provide domestic workers a decent working condition
↪about 95% of india’s mica is distributed in just three states [Jharkhand, Andhra pradesh & Rajasthan]
●Social and Infrastructure Development Fund(SIDF);-
↪was created in the public account for North-Eastern Region(NER) especially Arunachal Pradesh..
↪for training of farmers, social security etc.
●Programme SATYAM;-
↪aims to strengthen research in the area of Yoga  and meditation
●Fourth Estate’ of Indian democracy;-
↪Commonly refers to the news media [other three are Legislature, Executive &Judiciary]
•Some rights of fourth estate are protected by Constitution [under Article-19]
●Disease have been eradicated in India;-
•Polio(around 2014)
↪Despite having lived in india for centuries, the community retains elements of its African heritage primarily ‘Sufi Muslims’
↪they lived around Gir Forest National Parj & Wildlife Sanctuary [Descendants form Southeast Africa]
●Crude Oil in India;-
↪Maximum crude oil is found in ‘Western offshore(39.79%) followed by Assam(~26%)
•Natural Gas;-
↪Maximum natural gas is found in ‘Eastern offshore(~37%) followed by ‘Western offshore(~24%)
●Indian Ocean Dipole(IOD);-
↪refers to a swing in the sea surface temperature in the Western and Eastern Indian Ocean
●India League(1922);-
↪During the colonial era ,it was a Britain-based organization
↪whose main aim was to ‘Achieve full independence and self-government for india’
●Greenhouse gas emissions in India;-
•Energy Sector accounts two-thirds(67%) of total emission
•CO2 too by volume accounts two-thirds(67%) emission
●Ministry of Law and Justice;-
↪Is the oldest limb of GoI dating back to Charter Act of 1834
●The Colombo Plan;-
↪It is one of the oldest regional inter-governmental organizations of Asia-Pacific dates far back as 1950
•Its primary focus on Human Resources Development
●’ACROSS’ scheme;-{Mo Earth Sciences}
↪to provide a reliable weather & climate forecast for betterment of society,[will aim at improving skill of weather & climate forecast]
◆GoI approved continuation of the nine sub-schemes of ‘ACROSS’ umbrella scheme during 2017-20
●World Fisheries Day;-{November 21st}
↪to highlight the importance of healthy oceans ecosystems & to ensure sustainable stocks of fisheries in the world
•fisheries contributing about 1.07% to GDP(India)
●Global Stocktake;-{first global stocktake will happen in 2023}
↪refers to a proposed five-yearly review of the impact of countries’ climate change actions [Under the Paris Agreement, every country must present a climate action plan in five-yearly cycles]
◆ahead of UN climate conference in Poland next month,【 BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China)】 group recently met to put pressure on developed countries to meet pre-2020 climate efforts
●PAiSA ↪Is a centralized electronic platform for processing interest subvention on bank loans to beneficiaries under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
●Titli cyclone is ‘rarest of rare’;-
↪More than 200 years of cyclone track history in the Odisha coast reveals that
↪Is the rarest of rare in terms of its characteristics such as recurvature after landfall & retaining [RIMES has termed]
•RIMES↪Is an inter-governmental body registered under the United Nations [RIMES evolved aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, to establish a regional early warning system in Asia & Africa]
●CRISPR technology↪Is basically a gene-editing technology that can be used for the purpose of altering genetic expression
◆Chinese researcher altered the genes of a human embryo that eventually resulted in the birth of twin girls.[genes claimed to be “edited” to ensure that they do not get infected with HIV]
●HysIS;-{India’s first hyperspectral imaging satellite for advanced Earth observation}
•Hyperspectral imaging camera in space can provide well-defined images
●Article 370↪ is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to J&K
•Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in J&K
•Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state
●UN Central Emergency Response Fund;-
↪It is an UN humanitarian fund launched in 2006
◆UN has announced $9.2 million in health & nutritional aid for crisis-stricken Venezuela
•When the oil price dropped drastically in 2014, Venezuela which received 96%of its revenue from the oil exports, suffered a shortage of foreign currency
●Protocol amending India-China DTAA;-
↪aims to avoid or eliminate double taxation
•DTAA↪ is referred as Tax Treaty
aims to avoid or eliminate double taxation of the same income in two countries
●Sub-categorization of OBCs;-
↪will ensure that the more backward among the OBC communities can get actual benefits of reservation
•currently, there is a single Central OBC list
●India gets UN Environment award;-
↪Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB),GoI awarded with Asia Environment Enforcement Awards, 2018 ‘for excellent work done by the Bureau in combating transboundary environmental crime’
•WCCB has developed an online Wildlife Crime Database Management System to get real time data
●Global Stocktake;-{first global stocktake will happen in 2023}
↪refers to a proposed five-yearly review of the impact of countries’ climate change actions [Under the Paris Agreement, every country must present a climate action plan in five-yearly cycles]
◆ahead of UN climate conference in Poland next month,【 BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China)】 group recently met to put pressure on developed countries to meet pre-2020 climate efforts
●NASA’s InSight spacecraft lands on Mars;-
↪It will be the first mission to peer deep beneath the Martian surface, studying the planet’s interior
↪It can give us insight into how the terrestrial planets formed etc.

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